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Chapter 8 The Information Systems Planning Process. Meeting the Challenges of Information Systems Planning. Charles Cohen. Presented by: Pablo De Luca. Agenda. Describe SISP Review results of an academic survey of SISP Examine issues uncovered and potential resolutions

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chapter 8 the information systems planning process

Chapter 8The Information Systems Planning Process

Meeting the Challenges of Information Systems Planning

Charles Cohen

Presented by: Pablo De Luca

agenda
Agenda
  • Describe SISP
  • Review results of an academic survey of SISP
  • Examine issues uncovered and potential resolutions
  • Implications of the research
  • Conclusions from the research
  • Some Solid Advice
  • Questions
what is sisp
What is SISP?

Strategic Information Systems Planning

  • Identify strategic IS applications (IMPACT)
  • Development of organization-wide information architecture (ALIGN)
key aspects
Key Aspects
  • Quality of planning process influences contribution of IS to organization’s performance
  • Organizations conventionally apply one of several methodologies; carrying out process presenting problems
  • Tendency to let computer experts handle SISP due to complex technical issues
  • Increasing involvement of non-technical business planners
  • SISP complicated by need to build org-wide information architecture; often FAIL to build it.
2 approaches
2 Approaches

IMPACT

  • search for high-impact applications
  • build barriers, change basis of competition, generate new products
  • promote innovation & creativity
2 approaches cont
2 Approaches (cont.)

ALIGN

  • Identify applications to help execute current business plans, realize current business goals
  • Choice of applications guides creation of org-wide information architecture
carrying out sisp
Carrying Out SISP
  • Choose Methodology
    • Business Systems Planning (BSP)
    • PROplanner
    • Information Engineering
    • Method/1
  • Embark on major, intensive study
    • Identify and prioritize portfolio of applications
    • Define databases, data elements, supporting network
    • Define databases, data elements, supporting network
    • Prepareschedule for developing and installing
a survey of strategic information systems planners
A Survey of Strategic Information Systems Planners

PART 1: Type of Methodology & Extent of Problems

  • Problems tied to RESOURCES, PROCESS, or OUTPUT

PART 2: Implementation of Plans

  • Extent to which the final plan guides the strategic direction of the organization
  • Level of satisfaction with SISP experience

Time, money, personnel, top management support

Limitations of the analysis

Comprehensive and appropriateness of final plan

a survey of strategic information systems planners9
A Survey of Strategic Information Systems Planners
  • How was the survey carried out?
    • Questionnaire with two parts: first part, identify the SISP methodology used; second part, implementation of plans.
    • 251 organizations, divided into two groups, received the questionnaire in the mail.
    • 163 organizations returned the questionnaire, 80 had carried out an SISP.
overall satisfaction with sisp
Overall Satisfaction with SISP

This is on a scale of 0-6. People are NOT too pleased with anything.

53%! After all that time and money spent on the planning process…

3 categories of issues
3 Categories of Issues
  • Leadership
  • Implementation
  • Resources
leadership issues
Leadership Issues
  • #1 - It is difficult to secure top management commitment for implementing the plan
  • #3 - The success of the methodology is greatly dependent on the team leader
  • #4 - It is difficult to find a team leader who meets the criteria specified by the methodology
  • #8 - It is difficult to convince top management to approve the methodology
implementation issues
Implementation Issues
  • #2 - Implementing the projects and the data architecture identified in the plan requires substantial further analysis
  • #7 – The methodology fails to take into account issues related to plan implementation
  • #12 – The documentation does not adequately describe the steps that should be followed for implementing the methodology
  • #13 – The SISP fails to provide priorities for developing specific databases
  • #14 – The SISP fails to determine an overall data architecture for the organization
  • #18 – The SISP fails to sufficiently address the need for data administration in the organization
resource issues
Resource Issues
  • #5 - The methodology lacks sufficient computer support
  • #6 - The planning exercise takes very long
  • #8 – The SISP fails to include an overall personnel and training plan for the MIS department
  • #10 – It is difficult to find team members who meet the criteria specified by the methodology
  • #11 – The SISP fails to include an overall financial plan for the MIS department
  • #15 – The planning exercise is very expensive
  • #16 – The SISP fails to address the role of a permanent MIS planning group
  • #17 – Many support personnel are required for data gathering and analysis during the study
leadership problems
Leadership Problems
  • Has the #1 problem!
    • It is difficult to secure top management commitment for implementing the plan
  • #3 problem
    • The success of the methodology is greatly dependent on the team leader
  • #4 problem
    • It is difficult to find a team leader who meets the criteria specified by the methodology
leadership solutions
Leadership Solutions
  • Difficult to secure top management commitment for implementing the plan

Top management needs to carefully consider its commitment before authorizing the preparation of a plan

  • The success of the methodology is greatly dependent on the team leader

Get top management support beforehand; reduce dependency on team leader by, for example, making the team leader a project manager rather than a team leader

  • Difficult to find a team leader who meets the criteria specified by the methodology

Look hard and choose carefully. Not much else to it.

Problem #8 – It is difficult to convince top management to approve the methodology

From Resource Issues: #10 – It is difficult to find team members who meet the criteria specified by the methodology

implementation problems
Implementation Problems
  • Has the #2 problem!
    • Implementing the projects and the data architecture identified in the plan requires substantial further analysis

#12 – The documentation does not adequately describe the

steps that should be followed for implementing the

methodology

#13 – The SISP fails to provide priorities for developing

specific databases

#14 – The SISP fails to determine an overall data architecture

for the organization

implementation solutions
Implementation Solutions
  • Implementing the projects and the data architecture identified in the plan requires substantial further analysis

Choose a vendor who provides features that guide into implementation

resources problems
Resources Problems
  • #5 Problem
    • The methodology lacks sufficient computer support
resources solution
Resources Solution
  • The methodology lacks sufficient computer support

Don’t underestimate the need of computer support

Scrutinize vendor’s computer support for applicability

implications

Methodology lacks sufficient computer support

Planning exercise takes very long

No overall personnel and training plan for the MIS department

Difficult to find team members who meet the methodology’s criteria

No overall financial plan for the MIS department

Very expensive

No permanent MIS planning group

Many support personnel are required

Difficult to secure top management

commitment for implementing the plan

Success of the methodology is greatly dependent on the team leader

Difficult to find a team leader who meets the criteria specified by the methodology

Difficult to convince top management to approve the methodology

Requires substantial further analysis

Methodology fails to take into account issues related to plan implementation

Documentation is inadequate for implementation

No priorities for developing specific databases

No overall data architecture is determined

No data administration need addressed

Implications
conclusions from the research
Conclusions from the Research
  • Planners not satisfied with SISP
  • Even when SISP is ‘complete’, further analysis often required
  • Plans often poorly executed, if at all
  • Top management and business planners must be involved
some solid advice
Strategic Awareness

Situation Analysis

Strategy Conception

Strategy Formulation

Strategy Implementation Planning

Planning issues & objectives, organizing teams,

obtaining top management commitment

Analyzing current business, organizational, &

information systems; analyzing external

business & IT environments

Identifying major IT objectives, opportunities for

improvement, high level IT strategies

Identifying new business processes, new IT

architectures, specific new projects, & priorities

for new projects

Defining change management approach &

action plan, evaluating action plan, and defining

follow-up & control procedure

Some Solid Advice

Newkirk, H.E. & Lederer, A.L, 2006

some solid advice cont
Some Solid Advice (cont.)

From a recent study (Newkirk & Lederer, 2006):

  • Strategy formulation uniformly predicted successful planning in more but not less uncertain [environments];
  • Strategic awareness generally predicted it in less but not more uncertain [environments];
  • Strategy conception did not predict it in either.
some solid advice cont26
Some Solid Advice (cont.)

From the same study:

“…planners put their greatest effort into strategy conception although it had the least impact on planning effectiveness, while they put their least effort into strategy implementation planning which [has] the greatest impact.”

some solid advice cont27
Some Solid Advice (cont.)
  • Know your environment
  • Know your goals (impact / align)
  • Stop fooling around with conception and PLAN FOR THE DELIVERY