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AP Human Geography Theoretical Model Review

AP Human Geography Theoretical Model Review

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AP Human Geography Theoretical Model Review

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  1. AP Human GeographyTheoretical Model Review Mr. Stepek

  2. Unit 1: Basic Geographic Concepts

  3. Five Themes of Geography • Location • Place • Region • Movement • Interaction • How do I remember this analytical structure? • Use an acronym • MR LIP!

  4. Location • geospatial technologies • Differentiate between global positioning systems (GPS) GIS, remote sensing, • fieldwork, census data, online data, aerial photography, and satellite imagery, quantitative vs. qualitative data • absolute vs. relative location

  5. Place • site (physical/demographic characteristics, land, labor, capital) • situation (why is this important? How is it connected to other places?)

  6. Toponyms

  7. Distance Decay and the Gravity Model Distance Decay ½ of Gravity Model Gravity Model (measures interconnectedness, for example migration between cities)

  8. Gravity Model in action • If you were relocating from Peoria, would you choose NYC or Chicago? • Chicago due to distance • If you were relocating from Peoria, would you choose Chicago or St. Louis? • Chicago due to size

  9. Region • differentiate between types of regions • formal/uniform = common characteristics (political units etc.)

  10. Region • differentiate between types of regions • Functional/nodal = region serves a purpose (e.g. hinterland in CPT)

  11. Region • differentiate between types of regions • Perceptual/vernacular = indefinite, based on perceptions (neighborhoods)

  12. Region • understand the regions of the world and their general demographic and development characteristics

  13. Movement = Diffusion

  14. Stimulus Diffusion = the underlying concept is adopted but not the final product. Significant changes are made.

  15. Human – Environmental Interaction • Cultural Ecology by Carl O. Sauer • Cultural landscapes are comprised of the “forms superimposed on the physical landscape” • agriculture and domestication of plants and animals had an effect on the physical environment • Agricultural hearths • root plants = SE Asia • seed plants, cities/civilization = fertile crescent • River Valley Hearths and Mesoamerica • Experiments occur in lands of plenty

  16. Human – Environmental Interaction • Cultural Ecology by Carl O. Sauer • Cultural landscapes are comprised of the “forms superimposed on the physical landscape” • agriculture and domestication of plants and animals had an effect on the physical environment • Agricultural hearths • root plants = SE Asia • seed plants, cities/civilization = fertile crescent • River Valley Hearths and Mesoamerica • Experiments occur in lands of plenty • concern about the way that modern capitalism and centralized governmentwere destroying the cultural diversity and environmental health of the world

  17. Uniform Landscape = Placelessness

  18. Human – Environmental Interaction • Cultural Ecology by Carl O. Sauer • Cultural landscapes are comprised of the “forms superimposed on the physical landscape” • agriculture and domestication of plants and animals had an effect on the physical environment • Agricultural hearths • root plants = SE Asia • seed plants, cities/civilization = fertile crescent • River Valley Hearths and Mesoamerica • Experiments occur in lands of plenty • concern about the way that modern capitalism and centralized governmentwere destroying the cultural diversity and environmental health of the world • Environmental determinism vs. possibilism

  19. Unit 2: Population and Migration

  20. Demographic Transition (Thompson) • Shift in population growth typically experienced by countries as they develop (HDI and GII) • Gender, gender, gender!!!!!!! • Population pyramids • Dependency ratios • Epidemiological transition • Demographic trap • Demographic momentum • Migration transition (Zelinsky) • Demographic indicators • CBR, CDR, NIR (RNI), ZPG, TFR, IMR, life expectancy

  21. Malthus on overpopulation • Population grows exponentially • Food supplies grow arithmetically • Population will overtake supply leading to famine • The poor are responsible for their plight because they have too many children • Famines and disease will be a check on their population

  22. Malthusian updated Critics Neo-Malthusians Demographic trap (LDCs) and other resource depletion (water, energy) Density measures Arithmetic Physiological Agricultural • Pop. growth → more hands in intensive farming ↑ food – Boserup • More pop. → more minds → more innovation to solve problems – Kuznets • there’s enough but it’s not distributed fairly - Marxists • Green Revolution • Starts in US Midwest • Higher yield seeds • GMOs • Better fertilizer, machines • Biggest impact: • India, China

  23. Migration Transition (Zelinsky) • Migration patterns linked to stages of demographic transition • Stage 2 • Rapid population growth • Interregional migration • “urbanization” • Internat’l out-migration • Stage 3 and 4 • Maturing economies • Interregional migration • slower urbanization • suburbanization • Internat’l in-migration • Great Migration

  24. Migration Transition (Zelinsky) • Migration patterns linked to stages of demographic transition • Stage 2 • Rapid population growth • Interregional migration • “urbanization” • Internat’l out-migration • Stage 3 and 4 • Maturing economies • Interregional migration • slower urbanization • Intra = suburbanization • Internat’l in-migration • Great Migration • Brain drain • Guest workers • Counterurbanization • Major immigration flows

  25. Major Global Migration Flows (before 1950)

  26. Ravenstein’s “Laws of Migration” Laws Terms Each migration flow has a return or “countermigration” Mostly short distance Longer distance migrants to big cities Urban residents are less migratory Young single males more likely than families • circulation vs. migration

  27. Ravenstein’s “Laws of Migration” Laws Terms Each migration flow has a return or “countermigration” Mostly short distance Longer distance migrants to big cities Urban residents are less migratory Young single males more likely than families • circulation vs. migration • push/pull factors • step migration • Intervening opportunities/obstacles • chain migration • immigration waves • gravity model (population and distance)

  28. Sample FRQ Question

  29. Sample FRQ Question Rubric

  30. Sample FRQ Question

  31. Sample FRQ Question Rubric

  32. Sample FRQ Question

  33. Sample FRQ Question Rubric