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Splash Screen. Exploring America (cont.). Later explorers looking for a passage to China and India :. Juan Ponce de Le ó n —the first European to discover Florida Vasco de Balboa —the first European to reach the Pacific coast of America

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section 2

Exploring America(cont.)

  • Later explorers looking for a passage to China and India:
  • Juan Ponce de León—the first European to discover Florida
  • Vasco de Balboa—the first European to reach the Pacific coast of America
  • Ferdinand Magellan—discovered the strait later named for him; his crew was the first to circumnavigatethe globe.
Section 2
section 21

New Spain

After defeating the Aztec Empire, the Spanish established the colony of New Spain.

Section 2
section 22

New Spain(cont.)

  • In 1521, HernánCortés, with the help of the Tlaxcalan, defeated the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan.
  • Cortés then sent several expeditions to conquer the rest of Central America. The men who led these expeditions were known as conquistadors.
  • Cortés used the encomienda system to reward his men.

New Spain, c. 1600

Section 2
section 23

New Spain(cont.)

  • New Spanish explorations:
  • 1532—Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca empire.
  • 1540—Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explored the region between the Colorado River and the Great Plains.
  • Hernando De Soto explored parts of North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas, and Texas.

New Spain, c. 1600

Section 2
section 24

New Spain(cont.)

  • 1598—Juan de Oñate pushed north of the Rio Grande, into the present-day state of New Mexico.
  • The Catholic Church became the primary force for colonizing the Southwest but was met with much resistance.

New Spain, c. 1600

Section 2
section 25

New Spain(cont.)

  • New Spain had a highly structured society based on birth, income, and education. Rank from highest to lowest:
  • peninsulares
  • criollos
  • mestizos

New Spain, c. 1600

Section 2
section 26
A

B

C

D

Cortés rewarded his men by giving them which of the following?

A.Gold and silver

B.Control over towns in the Aztec empire

C.The chance to sail back to Spain

D.New weapons and horses

Section 2
section 27

New France

France claimed a vast territory in North America, but its colony had a small French population.

Section 2
section 28

New France(cont.)

  • French explorers included:
  • Giovanni da Verrazano—tried to find a northern route through North America to the Pacific Ocean
  • Jacques Cartier—explored and mapped the St. Lawrence River
  • Samuel de Champlain—founded Quebec, which became the capital of the colony of New France
Section 2
section 29

New France(cont.)

  • French explorers included:
  • Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette—found the Mississippi River
  • René-Robert Cavalier de La Salle—followed the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed Louisiana
Section 2
section 210

New France(cont.)

  • The Spanish were threatened by the French, so they built St. Augustine (in present-day Florida) and San Francisco de los Tejas (in present-day Texas) to defend their territory.
Section 2
section 211
A

B

C

D

Why was exploration of the lower Mississippi difficult for the French?

A.Spanish settlers would ambush the French.

B.Heat and mosquitoes

C.Indians would ambush the French.

D.The river was too difficult to navigate.

Section 2
vocab11

conquistador 

Spanish for conqueror; the men who led the expeditions to conquer the Americas

Vocab11
vocab12

encomienda

system of rewarding conquistadors tracts of land, including the right to tax and exact labor from Native Americans

Vocab12