Chapter 23 • The Realities of the immediate post-war period negated the feeling of liberation that victory had inspired and brought economic crisis and anxiety to the West. • Economic Uncertainty • In the decades after the war nations struggled to retool their economies from wartime needs back to ordinary requirements and to reestablish international trade
Trying to Recover From the Great War, 1919-1929 • The Victors Just Hold On • Defensive France • France still feared Germany • Britain and its Empire • Various political parties – Conservatives, Laborites, and Liberals – alternated in power in Britain • Britain tried to solve the Irish problem • The U.S. Turns Inward • The United States refused to ratify the Versailles treaty, join the League of Nations, or involve itself extensively in tensions oversea C. 1921 MAX ERNST CELEBES
Trying to Recover From the Great War, 1919-1929 • Continuing Crises in Germany • The Weimer Republic • A model liberal democracy • Moderate Social Democrats led the republic • Wild Inflation • At the crest of the inflation wave, four trillion German marks were worth only one dollar • Conciliation and a Glimpse of Prosperity • The Dawes Plan • A plan for occupying forces’ withdrawal from Germany • Uneasy Prosperity • New production techniques spread, emphasized the division between thinking by managers and physical labor by workers
Trying to Recover From the Great War, 1919-1929 • The Roaring Twenties? • The Radio and Movies • No new forces of popular culture shaped and reflected national attitudes more than the radio and movies • The Bauhaus School • This school created new standards for modern architecture and for the design of ordinary objects from chairs and lamps to dishes C. 1922 JOHN SLOAN THE CITY FROM GREENWICH VILLAGE
Trying to Recover From the Great War, 1919-1929 • New Attitudes Toward Sex • Clothing fashions, often popularized in movies, thinner fabrics, shorter skirts, and tight-fitting styling • The Anxious Twenties • Sense of Decay and Crises • Several philosophers, reacting to the horrors of the Great War, attacked nineteenth-century optimism and rationalism
Chapter 23 • Mounting economic problems and a lack of governing experience on the part of new democracies contributed to the rise of authoritarianism.
Turning Away From Democracy: Dictatorships and Fascism, 1919-1929 • Authoritarianism in East-Central Europe • The Rise of Fascism in Italy • Fascist Doctrine • Meant dictatorship by a charismatic leader, included a set of antidemocratic, anti-individualistic, and anticommunist ideas or attitudes • Turmoil in Italy • Many Italians felt that at Versailles, their nation lost its rightful status as a great power.
Turning Away From Democracy: Dictatorships and Fascism, 1919-1929 • Mussolini Takes Power • After the war, he organized mostly unemployed veterans into the National Fascist Party, and soon attracted enough support to bring down Italy’s parliamentary government • The Appeal of Fascism • Mussolini vowed to save Italy from communism • The Fascist System • Between 1924 and 1926m Mussolini turned his office into a dictatorship.
Chapter 23 • After winning the civil war, Soviet leaders still faced the task of building a socialist society and industrializing the country.
Transforming the Soviet Union: 1920-1939 • Lenin’s Compromise: The NEP • The Struggle to Succeed Lenin • Joseph Stalin • Man of Steel • Joined revolutionary groups • Repeatedly arrested • Became executive secretary for Communist Party • Posed as Lenin’s heir
Transforming the Soviet Union: 1920-1939 • Stalin’s Five-Year Plans • Collectivization • Took agriculture out of the control of individuals & used collective farms with modern machines • There were revolts and lives were lost • Mobilizing for Industrialization • Concentration on engines and tractors • Factories • Blood and Terror: The Great Purges
Chapter 23 • The economic crash in the West pulled much of the world into a severe economic depression. • Crash! • Causes of the Economic Collapse • Economic order was built on a fragile foundation of international credit, reparations payments, and foreign trade • Effects in Non-Western Lands • They were tied economically by trade • In the Teeth of the Depression • Searching for Solutions
Chapter 23 • As depression hit, the Nazi Party led by Hitler rose to power in Germany. • The Young Adolf Hitler • The Birth of Nazism in Germany’s Post-War Years • Nazi Doctrine • Dominated by a dictatorial leader • Racism and anti-semitism • Glorified the “Aryan race” • The Growth of the Nazi Party
Nazism in Germany • The Appeal of Nazism • Hitler Takes Power • Life in Nazi Germany • Family and Private Life • German Woman’s Bureau • Subordinates to their husbands • Special honors for multiple “German” children • Nazi Youth Organizations • Boys were encouraged to spy on their teachers and parents • Girls were trained to become mothers and housewives
Nazism in Germany • Promoting Nazism and Hitler • Hitler gave very stirring speeches • Only pro-Nazi art was allowed • Nazi Repression and Persecution • Communists, socialists, some Catholics, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Gypsies were sent to concentration camps • Mixed-race children, criminals, alcoholics, prostitutes, and homosexuals were persecuted • Rebuilding and Rearming the New Germany
Chapter 23 • A series of international crises and German aggression, left unstopped by a West attempting to address domestic divisions and problems, led the world toward a second conflict.
The Road to War, 1931-1939 C.1931 EDWARD HOPPER • International Affairs Break Down HOTEL ROOM • Japan on the March • Invaded Manchuria in 1931 • Italy Invades Ethiopia • In 1935, Mussolini ordered troops to invade Ethiopia • Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations for protection • Civil War in Spain
The Road to War, 1931-1939 • Trying to Cope with Germany • Appeasement at Munich • The leaders of Germany, Italy, France, and Britain met at Munich to come to some resolution of the Sudetenland question • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact • Stalin stunned the world by signing a nonaggression pact with Hitler on August 23,1939
Chapter 23 • In September 1939, post-war tensions became too great and exploded in a second war which surpassed the first in terms of civilian suffering and devastating weaponry.
World War II, 1939-1945 • Triumph of the German Blitzkrieg • The Battle of France • Ended after only five weeks • The Battle of Britain • For almost 2 months in fall 1940 Germans bombed London every night • Winston Churchill rallied his country • War in North Africa and the Balkans
World War II, 1939-1945 • Operation Barbarossa: Germany Invades the Soviet Union • Japan Attacks • The U.S. Enters the War • December 7, 1941, Japanese air forces surprised the American fleet at Pearl Harbor
World War II, 1939-1945 • Behind the Lines: The Struggle and the Horror • Hitler’s “New Order” • Keep Germany supplied with war materials • Maintain German’s standard of living • Racial agenda • The Holocaust • Hitler wanted Jews exterminated • Life and Death in the Camps • Many people tried to help one another • Collaboration and Resistance • In Croatia, they rounded up and killed Jews themselves • Mobilizing the Home Fronts
World War II 1939-1945 • Turning the Tide of War • The Eastern Front and the Battle of Stalingrad • The Mediterranean • The Western Front and the D-Day Invasion • Germany Defeated • The War in the Pacific • The Atomic Bomb
Trying to Recover From the Great War, 1919-1929 What types of economic problems plagued European governments after the war? What kinds of nationalist problems did the British Empire face? What internal problems weakened the newly created Weimar Republic? What were some of the signs that Western economies were improving after 1924? How did post-war popular culture reflect political and economic changes and the concerns of modern society? How did attitudes toward sex change, and how were these changes reflected in popular culture? What themes did post-war high culture express? How did artists and authors voice feelings of insecurity and crisis?
Turning Away From Democracy: Dictatorships and Fascism, 1919-1929 What economic problems did the new eastern and central European democracies face immediately after the war? Explain fascist ideological and political views. Why was Italy disappointed by the Treaty of Versailles? What kinds of economic problems and social disorders threatened post-war Italy? Which groups were attracted to Mussolini's fascism? After being appointed Italian prime minister in 1922, how did Mussolini build a dictatorship? How did Mussolini organize the economy and relations between labor and management?
Transforming the Soviet Union: 1920-1939 What steps did Lenin and the Communist Party take to build a socialist society during the 1920s? How did the political views of Trotsky, Bukharin, and Stalin differ in the mid-1920s? After Lenin's death, how did Stalin rise to the head of the Communist party? What policies did Stalin employ to rapidly industrialize and modernize the Soviet Union's economy? How successful were those policies? What role was collectivization supposed to play in the rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union? What results did collectivization actually produce? How did the Soviet state attempt to mobilize society as it industrialized? What effect did the Great Purges have on Soviet society?
The Great Depression, 1929-1939 What caused the economic collapse known as the Great Depression? How did both societies and governments react to the economic hardships of the depression?
Nazism in Germany What beliefs did Hitler expound upon in Mein Kampf? How did the German economic and political situation contribute to the rise of the Nazi Party? To what groups did Nazi doctrine appeal and why? How did Hitler consolidate his dictatorship? How did Nazi policies attempt to shape family and private life, as well as emotions and culture? What values were promoted? What actions and policies were taken against German Jews and other "community aliens" during the 1930s?