Principles of Behavior The Science of Psychology . Chapter One. Definition. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. . Why Study Psychology?. Used to understand why people think, feel, and act as they do.
Principles of Behavior The Science of Psychology Chapter One
Definition Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
Why Study Psychology? • Used to understand why people think, feel, and act as they do. • Separates mere opinion from a conclusion based on observation and examination.
Goals of Psychology • Description and Observation: • Explanation/HypothesisTheory- • Predicting Behavior- • Changing Behavior
HISTORY How did the discipline of psychology evolve? • Greek philosophers----mind-body debate. • Early biology. • Relatively Young discipline • Three main stages in the history of the discipline: • Science of the Mind • Study of Behavior • Cognitive Revolution
The Science of the Mind • Introspection: Wilhelm Wundt, first psychological laboratory • Structuralism(def) analysis of complex experiences in terms of their simplest components. • Titchener –student of Wundt, who analyzed the experience of consciousness by breaking it down into it’s smaller components. • Consciousness-our awareness of cognitive processes such as concentrating, making decisions, dreaming • Sensations • Feelings • Images
Science of the Mind • Functionalism– ( William James)-theory of thoughts and behavior concerned with how one uses their perceptual abilities to function in the environment. • Theory stated that perceptions, memories and images could not be separated. • William James contribution to education and women.
Psychodynamic Theory • Theory stated that we are motivated by unconscious instincts and urges that are not available to the rational, conscious part of our mind. • Sigmund Freud-- physician who was convinced that many ailments were psychological rather than physiological in nature. • He was trying to explain the psychological nature of ailments, and therefore the connection between the brain and behavior at the same time the structuralists were debating consciousness.
THE STUDY OF BEHAVIOR • Behaviorism-(John B. Watson)-school of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior. Therefore, if a phenomenon could not be observed, it did not exist as an object of scientific study. • believed that all mental experiences such as thinking, feeling, awareness of self, are nothing more than physiological changes in response to accumulated experiences. • Classical Conditioning-Ivan Pavlov • Little Albert • Radical Behaviorism: B.F. Skinner
Radical Behaviorism • Operant Conditioning: The theory of reinforcement. Therefore, behavior that is rewarded will continue, while behavior that is punished will be extinguished. • B.F. Skinner
THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION • Inability of Behaviorism to explain psychological phenomenon such as perception, child development, personality gave way to the rise of cognitive psychology. • Gestalt & Humanistic Psychology • Cognitive Psychology as a foundation of the discipline.
CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY • Multi-disciplined under large umbrella. • Clinical vs. Experimental • The foundations of Psychology are Physiological Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Learning Theory, and Social Psychology
Subfields within Psychology 1. Clinical Subfields Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Behavioral 2. Experimental Psychology Subfields Biological Cognitive Social-Cultural Learning/Evolutionary Developmental 3. Industrial Organiational
Studying Behavior through Different Perspectives • Biological- mechanisms within the brain and body • Cultural-environmental influences • Social Influences- Societal norms
Example: Feeding Behavior • Biological- biological mechanisms involved in eating • Homeostasis/Food Regulation • Glucose-Glycogen • Liver-Hypothalamus
Feeding Behavior • Cultural Influences • When • How much
Feeding Behavior • Societal Influences • Presence of Others • Societal Perception
Advantage of Multiple Perspectives • The understanding of behavior requires: • Different perspectives multiple levels of understanding. • The use of multiple perspectives neccesitates the use of the scientific method.
PSYCHOLOGISTS AS SCIENTISTS Science is not defined by what it investigates but by how it investigates. • Scientific Approach • Curiosity • Skeptical • Objective • Critical thinking Two Phenomena that limit our thinking and lead to erroneous conclusions. Hindsight bias Judgmental Overconfidence
The Study of Behavior • Critical Thinking- • Empirical Evidence • The Scientific Method
Phenomenon that limit thinking and lead to erroneous conclusions • Hindsight Bias • Judgmental Overconfidence “We don’t like their sound. Groups of guitars are on their way out!” quoted by Decca Records Management when turning down a recording contract with the Beatles in 1962…….
Scientific Method • Perceive a question • Formulate a Hypothesis • Question: Does low self-esteem contributes to depression • Hypothesis-Are people with low self-esteem more likely to feel depressed than those with high self-esteem? (testable). • Test the Hypothesis • Formulate explanation for observations. • Report and Replicate-
Types of Research Methods • Naturalistic Observation- • Case Study • Survey- • Correlational Research • Experimental
Experimental Research • Explains a cause and effect relationship. • Manipulates one or more variables under controlled conditions in order to observe their effect on behavior. • Independent variable-what is being studied or manipulated. • Dependent variable- what is being measured-perception of play. • Control group- • Experimental group-
The Effects of Culture on Psychological Research • Cross-cultural psychology is a research method that tests the cultural parameters of psychological knowledge. • Uses participants of more than one cultural background and compares data obtained across those cultures. • Allows psychologists to examine how knowledge about people and their behaviors from one culture may or may not hold for people from other cultures.