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Minerals

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  1. Minerals

  2. What is a Mineral? • Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite

  3. What do all minerals have in common? All: • Are formed by natural processes. • Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive • Have a definite volume and shape • Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup • Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL)

  4. Watch “Crystals” by Brainpop… • .What element are diamonds made from? • . What do all crystals have in common?

  5. Groups of Minerals • Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Beryl (Emerald) Calcite Amethyst

  6. MICA Quartz

  7. Silver Copper Diamond Gold Iron Ruby

  8. Calcite with Duftite inclusions

  9. BariteBaSo4 Barite on CalciteBaSo4 / CaCO3

  10. How do minerals form? • 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) • Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) • Medium Cooling = small crystals • Slow Cooling = large crystals

  11. How do minerals form? • 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water)

  12. Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Color • Can be misleading • Can vary with the type of impurities

  13. Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Luster • Surface reflection • metallic = shiny like metal • non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster

  14. Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Streak • The color of the powdered form of the mineral • The color of the streak can be different than the mineral • Minerals must be softer than the streak plate

  15. Streak…can help identify quartz BUT... http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b3.html

  16. Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Hardness • How easily a mineral scratches materials • Mohs Hardness Scale • Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) • Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)

  17. Find out more… • “Electronic” Hardness Test http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b2.html

  18. Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Cleavage & Fracture • The way the mineral breaks • Cleavage—minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape • Fracture—minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges

  19. 1. 4. 3. 2. Cleavage or Fracture?

  20. Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Other Properties • Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) • Attraction to magnets • Bending of light • Reaction with hydrochloric acid • Smell & taste http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b4.html

  21. Watch Brainpop—“Mineral Identification” • . If a mineral can scratch your fingernail, the mineral is _______________ than your fingernail. • 2. What is luster?

  22. Watch Classifying Minerals Clip