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Conjugating Verbs. Present, Imperfect & Perfect Tenses. Background Info. To conjugate a verb means to list the forms. Verbs are grouped into conjugations. Conjugations determine the linking vowels for present tense and imperfect tense. 1 st conjugation verbs have 2 nd PP ending –are

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conjugating verbs

Conjugating Verbs

Present, Imperfect & Perfect Tenses

background info
Background Info
  • To conjugate a verb means to list the forms.
  • Verbs are grouped into conjugations.
  • Conjugations determine the linking vowels for present tense and imperfect tense.
  • 1st conjugation verbs have 2nd PP ending –are
  • 2ndconjugation verbs have 2nd PP ending –ēre
  • 3rd conjugation verbs have 2nd PP ending –ere
  • 4th conjugation verbs have 2nd PP ending –ire
conjugating in present tense
Conjugating in Present Tense
  • The endings are: -o -mus

-s -tis

-t -nt

  • The linking vowels for present tense are:

1 2 3 4

a e ii

  • To form the present tense, remove infinitive ending from the end of the 2ndpp, then add the correct linking vowel plus the endings.
  • Remember that in 1st and 3rd conjugation, -o swallows the vowel.
  • Remember that in 3rd and 4th conjugation, the 3rd person plural ending is

–unt and –iunt.

conjugating in imperfect tense
Conjugating in Imperfect Tense
  • The endings are: -bam -bamus

-bas -batis

-bat -bant

  • The linking vowels for imperfect tense are:

1 2 3 4

a e eie

  • To form the imperfect tense, remove the infinitive ending from the end of the 2ndpp, then add the correct linking vowel plus the endings.
conjugating in perfect tense
Conjugating in Perfect Tense
  • The endings are: -i -imus

-isti -istis

-it -erunt

  • To form the perfect tense, remove –i from the end of the 3rdpp, then add the endings.
  • This applies for all conjugations, including irregular verbs.
  • There are no linking vowels for perfect tense.
conjugate porto portare portavi carry in present imperfect and perfect tenses
Conjugate porto, portare, portavi – carryin present, imperfect and perfect tenses.
  • Since the 2ndpp ends in –are, this verb is 1st conjugation.
  • 1st conjugation verbs use –a for the linking vowel for both present and imperfect.
  • Present TenseImperfect Tense

portoportamusportabamportabamus

portasportatisportabasportabatis

portatportantportabatportabant

  • Perfect Tense – 3rdpp is portavi, minus -i, plus endings 

portaviportavimus

portavistiportavistis

portavitportaverunt

conjugate rideo rid re risi laugh in present imperfect and perfect tenses
Conjugate rideo, ridēre, risi– laughin present, imperfect and perfect tenses.
  • Since the 2ndpp ends in –ēre, this verb is 2nd conjugation.
  • 2nd conjugation verbs use –e for the linking vowel for both present and imperfect.
  • Present TenseImperfect Tense

rideoridemusridebamridebamus

rides ridetisridebasridebatis

ridetridentridebatridebant

  • Perfect Tense – 3rdpp is risi, minus -i, plus endings 

risirisimus

risistirisistis

risitriserunt

conjugate vendo vendere vendidi sell in present imperfect and perfect tenses
Conjugate vendo, vendere, vendidi– sellin present, imperfect and perfect tenses.
  • Since the 2ndpp ends in –ere, this verb is 3rd conjugation.
  • 3rd conjugation verbs use –i for present tense and –e for the imperfect tense.
  • Present TenseImperfect Tense

vendovendimusvendebamvendebamus

vendisvenditisvendebasvendebatis

venditvenduntvendebatvendebant

  • Perfect Tense – 3rdpp is vendidi, minus -i, plus endings 

vendidivendidimus

vendidistivendidistis

vendiditvendiderunt

conjugate dormio dormire dormivi sleep in present imperfect and perfect tenses
Conjugate dormio, dormire, dormivi– sleepin present, imperfect and perfect tenses.
  • Since the 2ndpp ends in –ire, this verb is 4th conjugation.
  • 4th conjugation verbs use –i for present tense and –ie for the imperfect tense.
  • Present TenseImperfect Tense

dormiodormimusdormiebamdormiebamus

dormisdormitisdormiebasdormiebatis

dormitdormiuntdormiebatdormiebant

  • Perfect Tense – 3rdpp is dormivi, minus -i, plus endings 

dormividormivimus

dormivistidormivistis

dormivitdormiverunt

conjugate sum esse fui to be in present imperfect and perfect tenses
Conjugate sum, esse, fui– to bein present, imperfect and perfect tenses.
  • Since this verb is irregular, it doesn’t belong to any conjugation.
  • The forms must be memorized for present and imperfect.
  • Present TenseImperfect Tense

sum sumuserameramus

esestis eras eratis

estsunteraterant

  • Perfect Tense – 3rdpp is fui, minus -i, plus endings 

fuifuimus

fuistifuistis

fuitfuerunt

  • Compounds will be conjugated similarly.
conjugate eo ire ii go in present imperfect and perfect tenses
Conjugate eo, ire, ii – goin present, imperfect and perfect tenses.
  • Since this verb is irregular, it doesn’t belong to any conjugation.
  • The forms must be memorized for present and imperfect.
  • Present TenseImperfect Tense

eoimusibamibamus

is itisibasibatis

it euntibatibant

  • Perfect Tense – 3rdpp is ii, minus -i, plus endings 

ii iimus

iistiiistis

iitierunt

  • Compounds will be conjugated similarly.