Chapter 11. Effective Communication and Team Building. Sender — person sending message Receiver— person interpreting message Feedback— how receiver responds to message. Content —actual words used Verbal communication— spoken words Nonverbal communication — body language.
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Chapter 11 Effective Communication and Team Building
Sender—person sending message Receiver—person interpreting message Feedback—how receiver responds to message Content—actual words used Verbal communication—spoken words Nonverbal communication—body language What Are the Parts of the Communication Process?
Interaction between two people Make your message clear Use simple, precise words Encourage receiver to use feedback Nonverbal reaction communicates message Reputation and credibility make difference Acknowledge feelings of others Basic Principles of Effective Communication
Basic Principles of Effective Communication (cont’d) • Communicate directly with person • Communicate in the present • Keep your personal values from interfering with your communication • Be respectful of personal nature of your surroundings
What Are Facilitative Messages? • These messages create positive outcomes where people communicating with each other feel good about their interactions
What Are Obstructive Messages? • Obstructive messages generally make it much more difficult for people to communicate effectively within a positive relationship
Communication in the Workplace • What are principles and the health care team? Sharing information with members of health care team requires different approaches • Delegation • Clarification • Reevaluation • Coordination
Keep your supervisor informed Focus on problem solving Show your sense of responsibility Avoid blaming others Don’t respond with anger To present new idea, give your supervisor a written proposal Accept feedback Never go above or around your supervisor How Can I Communicate Effectively with My Supervisor?
How Can I Communicate Effectively with Other Nursing Personnel? • Professional nurses should view themselves as equals in their interactions with members of other health care disciplines • Your approach to communication should be a lateral one, even with physicians
How Can I Communicate Effectively with Patient Care Assistants? • Get their full attention • Give clear, simple, step-by-step instructions • Ask for feedback to verify they heard you correctly • Be sure to follow up • Provide direction without being too harsh
What Does My Image Communicate to Others? • Communication enhanced by your credibility • Good personal hygiene • Know your particular kind of nursing thoroughly • Flexibility is necessary for effective communication • Be pleasant to be around
Women See big picture More comfortable asking questions Use softer, quieter approach Less competitive Less aggressive in asking direct questions Men More logical and direct Ask fewer questions More aggressive and assertive More team oriented How Do Gender Differences Influence Communication Styles?
It flourishes in all settings When in doubt, check facts out! How to control it Provide factual information Communicate face-to-face Don’t spread rumors Hold a meeting to provide information and answer questions Make what is put in writing is clear What Should I Know about the “Grapevine”?
How Can I Deal with Cultural Diversity at Work? • Be aware of stereotypes • Communication goes through many filters • To interact effectively, we need to speak clearly, avoiding use of slang • Use skills of co-workers to translate or interpret • Respect and empathize with others
How Can I Communicate Effectively in Writing? • Upward communication needs to be formal • Don’t send without careful proofreading • Take time to make necessary revisions • Organize your thoughts • Keep It Short and Simple (KISS) Principle • How well you write strongly influences how you are evaluated
How Can I Learn to Speak Effectively? • Develop positive attitude • PRACTICE makes PERFECT! • Analyze your audience • Do your homework • Plan presentation • Add spice to presentation • Create cheat sheets • Make eye contact!
What Listening Skills Do I Need to Develop? • Make sure you can hear what’s being said • Focus your attention on what’s being said • Recognize and control your emotional response • Listen and accept other person’s needs and feelings • Pay attention to nonverbal communication • Fight off distractions
What Listening Skills Do I Need to Develop? (cont’d) • Take notes • Let the speaker tell whole story • React to message, not person • Respond positively to feelings being communicated • Allow yourself to hear all sides of issue
How Can I Use Nonverbal Communication Effectively? • Make eye contact with person • Stand up straight, shoulders back • Use forceful voice without pauses to suggest confidence • Watch for distracting behaviors
What Skills Do I Need to Use the Telephone Effectively? • “Is this is a convenient time to talk?” • Leave message instead of playing telephone tag • Make notes ahead of time, to save time • Follow up with written communication • Do one thing at a time • Don’t chit-chat or gossip
How Can I Communicate Effectively by Using Technology? • Don’t misuse or overuse fax machines • When you leave someone a voice-mail message, speak slowly and distinctly • Don’t leave callers on hold if you are using call waiting • Make sure it’s a convenient time to talk • With a teleconference, make sure each party to the call is introduced to the other people
How Can I Communicate Effectively by Using Technology?(cont’d) • When you have business cards printed, include e-mail address and fax number • Do not send emotional outbursts in e-mail • Learn to use basic computer software • Send handwritten notes
What Is Group Process? • Forming—common bond • Storming—controlled pandemonium • Norming—mutual goals developed • Performing—able to work together • Adjourning—disengagement from tasks and group members
Dysfunctional Group Personalities? • Self-servers • Rules don’t apply to them • Show up late • Contribute very little • Motor mouths • Talk just to hear themselves • Always interrupt • Mouse • Fearful of voicing opinion • Takes no risks, no responsibilities
How Can You Improve Communications in Group Meetings? • Come prepared • Listen—be open to other viewpoints • Keep on track—don’t visit or chit-chat • Present your ideas or opinions—ask other members for theirs • State disagreements—be able to back them up • Clarify when needed—don’t assume
What Are the Responsibilities of a Group Leader? • Be organized and communicate effectively • Have a clear purpose for every meeting • Send out agenda ahead of time • Every item on the agenda should require some action by group • Have your room and AV equipment ready • Summarize decisions and identify plan of action • Schedule next meeting
Team Building • Group of individuals working as a team • Right mix of three attributes describe complementary and functional teams • Interpersonal skills • Problem-solving and decision-making skills • Technical or functional expertise • Working together toward some meaningful end
Passive or avoidant Lets others push him around Assertive A person stands up for herself in a way that doesn’t violate the basic rights of another person Aggressive Person puts his or her own needs, rights, and feelings first and communicates that in an angry, dominating way Assertive Styles of Communication
Why Aren’t Nurses More Assertive? • Some have hard time believing in their own rights, feelings, or needs • Experiences or comments may reinforce those negative messages about self-worth • May be afraid of repercussions of assertive communication • Assertiveness takes self-awareness and practice
What Are the Benefits of Assertiveness? • It helps you to feel good about yourself and allows you to treat others with respect • Being assertive helps you to avoid feeling guilty, angry, resentful, confused, or lonely
What Are My Basic Rights as a Person and as a Nurse? • As an adult human being, you have some legitimate rights • When nurses consider rights, responsibilities must also be included • Acquiring them and holding them are your responsibility
How Can I Begin to Practice Assertive Communication? • Changing one’s behavior requires conscious decision • Practice being assertive by yourself at first • Role-play with friend first • Ask for feedback and evaluate your progress
STRATEGY 1 I think . . . I feel . . . I want . . . STRATEGY 2 I feel . . . about . . . because . . . You must be willing to change and compromise What Are the Components of Assertive Communication?
When to Use Assertive Communication • You need to evaluate how your assertive communication feels to you, and you need to seek feedback from other people • You need to know whether people perceive you as aggressive rather than assertive • Find workable solution • There are some situations in which you must simply follow orders