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ETAP-3: State of the Art, Options, and Prospects of Development. Leonid Iomdin Institute for Information Transmission Problems Russian Academy of Sciences iomdin @iitp.ru. Theoretical Background. I gor Mel’ č uk: «Meaning  Text» theory J u rij Apresjan:

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etap 3 state of the art options and prospects of development

ETAP-3: State of the Art, Options, and Prospects of Development

Leonid Iomdin

Institute for Information Transmission Problems

Russian Academy of Sciences

iomdin@iitp.ru

theoretical background
Theoretical Background
  • Igor Mel’čuk:

«Meaning  Text» theory

  • Jurij Apresjan:

Integrated Theory of Linguistic Description and Systemiclexicography

Prague, May 12, 2008

etap 3 o ptions
ETAP-3Options
  • Machine translation
  • SynTagRus: the tagged corpus of Russian Texts
  • Generation from and to UNL
  • (Quasi)synonymous Paraphrasing
  • Computer-Aided Language Learning Tool

Prague, May 12, 2008

machine translation
Machine Translation
  • Russian  English
    • 120,000-strong morphological dictionaries
    • 95,000-strong combinatorial dictionaries
  • Russian  German prototype
  • Russian  French prototype
  • Russian  Korean prototype
  • Russian  Spanish prototype
  • Arabic  English prototype

Prague, May 12, 2008

major features of etap environment
Major Features of ETAP Environment
  • Rule-based Approach
  • Stratificational Approach
  • Syntactic Dependencies
  • Lexicalistic Approach
  • Self-Tuning
  • Maximum Reusability of Linguistic resources

Prague, May 12, 2008

dependency s yntactic s tructure
Dependency Syntactic Structure
  • They made a general remark that it was true.

Prague, May 12, 2008

self t uning grammar vs dictionary
Self-Tuning: Grammar vs. Dictionary
  • General regularities: general rules that apply to very large classes of words and occur very often.
    • Example: agreement Adj + N
  • Restricted-scope regularities: specific rules that apply to restricted classes of words and have limited occurrence.
    • Example: compound numerals

Prague, May 12, 2008

multiple translation
Multiple Translation

They made a general remark that …

  • (a) ‘they remarked in a general way that…’
  • (b) ‘they forced a general to remark that…’

Prague, May 12, 2008

synonymous p araphrasing
Synonymous Paraphrasing
  • The director ordered John to write a report
  • The director gave John an order to write a report
  • John was ordered by the director to write a report
  • John received an order from the director to write a report

Prague, May 12, 2008

lexical f unctions
Lexical Functions
  • Substitute LF
    • synonyms, antonyms, converse terms, derivatives
  • Collocate LF
    • MAGN = 'a high degree of what is denoted by X’
    • OPER/FUNC
    • ...

Prague, May 12, 2008

lexical functions
Lexical Functions
  • MAGN disease grave
  • MAGN fog heavy
  • MAGN control strict

Prague, May 12, 2008

oper func family of lf
Oper / Func Family of LF

Prague, May 12, 2008

examples of lf oper
Examples of LF Oper
  • Oper1 (invitation) = issue
  • Oper2(invitation) = receive
  • Oper1 (defeat) = suffer
  • Oper2 (resistence) = encounter
  • Oper2 (respect) = enjoy

Prague, May 12, 2008

e xamples of lf func
Examples of LF Func
  • Func1 (fear) = possess
  • Func2 (decision) = concern
  • Func1 (responsibility) = rest (with)
  • Func2 (vengeance) = fall (upon)

Prague, May 12, 2008

general properties of lexical functions
General Properties of Lexical Functions
  • Universality
  • Intralinguistic idiomaticity
    • grave disease, heavy fog
    • *heavy disease, *grave fog.
  • Cross-linguistic idiomaticity
    • Rus. тяжелая болезнь‘heavy disease’
    • Rus. густой туман‘dense fog’

Prague, May 12, 2008

general properties of lexical functions cont
General Properties of Lexical Functions (cont.)
  • Paraphrasing Potential:
    • He respects [X] his teachers
    • He has [OPER1 (S0 (X))] respect [S0 (X)] for his teachers
    • He treats [LABOR12 (S0 (X))] his teachers with respect
    • His teachersenjoy [OPER2 (S0(X))] his respect

Prague, May 12, 2008

lf in practical applications
LF in Practical Applications
  • Syntactic and Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in Parsers
  • Idiomatic Translation of a Large Class of Set Expressions in Machine Translation
  • Sentence Paraphrasing

Prague, May 12, 2008

lexical ambiguity resolution
Lexical Ambiguity Resolution
  • to draw a distinction - provodit' razlichie
  • Both verbs are extremely ambiguous:
    • draw - more than 50 meanings
    • provodit’ - more than 10 meanings

Prague, May 12, 2008

syntactic ambiguity resolution
Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution
  • support of the parliament
    • 'support by the parliament'
    • 'support (given) to the parliament'
  • The president had [Y=OPER2(X)]the support [X] of the parliament
  • The fear [X] of his wife possessed [Y = FUNC1 (X)] Peter
  • The fears of his wife infectedPeter.

Prague, May 12, 2008

idiomatic translation lf temp
Idiomatic translation: LF Temp
  • March: in - март: в2
  • Tuesday: on - вторник: в1
  • dawn: at - рассвет: на2
  • moment: at - момент: в1
  • Easter: at – пасха: на1

Prague, May 12, 2008

sentence paraphrasing
Sentence Paraphrasing
  • X = CONV12 (X)

This group consists of 20 persons –

Twenty persons comprise this group;

  • X + Y = ANTI1(X) + ANTI2(Y)

He began to observe the rules –

He stopped violating the rules

  • X = LABOR12 + S0(X)

He respects his parents –

He treats his parents with respect

Prague, May 12, 2008

sample d ictionary e ntry excerpt chance
Sample Dictionary Entry (Excerpt): CHANCE

CHANCE1

POR:S

SYNT:COUNT,PREDTO,PREDTHAT

DES:'FACT','ABSTRACT’

Prague, May 12, 2008

chance
CHANCE

D1.1:OF,'PERSON'

D2.1:OF,'FACT'

D2.2:TO2

D2.3:THAT1

Prague, May 12, 2008

chance1
CHANCE

SYN1: OPPORTUNITY

MAGN: GOOD1, FAIR1, EXCELLENT

ANTIMAGN: SLIGHT, SLIM, POOR, LITTLE1, SMALL

OPER1: HAVE, STAND1

REAL1-M: TAKE

Prague, May 12, 2008

chance2
CHANCE

ANTIREAL1-M: MISS1

INCEPOPER1: GET

FINOPER1: LOSE

CAUSFUNC1: GIVE <TO1>

ZONE:R

TRANS:ШАНС/СЛУЧАЙ

Prague, May 12, 2008

chance3
CHANCE

REG:TRADUCT2.00

TAKE:X

LOC:R

R:COMPOS/MODIF/POSSES

CHECK

1.1 DEP-LEXA(X,Z,PREPOS,BY1)

N:01

CHECK

1.1 DOM(X,*,R)

DO

1 ZAMRUZ:Z(PO1)

2 ZAMRUZ:X(SLUCHAJNOST’)

Prague, May 12, 2008

chance4
CHANCE
  • N:02
  • CHECK
  • 2.1 DOM(X,*,*)
  • DO
  • 1 ZAMRUZ:Z(SLUCHAJNO)
  • 2 STERUZ:X
  • TRAF:RA-EXPANS.16
  • LA:THAT1
    • TRAF:RA-EXPANS.22

Prague, May 12, 2008

what is unl
What is UNL?
  • UNL is a formal language for meaning representation
  • A minimal unit of UNL is a UNL expression
  • UNL expression corresponds to a sentence of natural language in the amount of information conveyed

Prague, May 12, 2008

unl architecture

UNL

System

Chinese People

French

Chinese

French People

Spanish

Hindi

Internet

Hindu People

Spanish People

UNL Architecture

Prague, May 12, 2008

how is unl made
How is UNL made?
  • UNL is a formal language of meaning representation
  • A minimum UNL unit is UNL graph
  • The amount of sense rendered by a UNL graph corresponds to a natural language sentence

Prague, May 12, 2008

two mt architectures transfer vs interlingua
Two MT architectures: Transfer vs. Interlingua

Source text

Target text

Transfer

Interlingua

Prague, May 12, 2008

unl approach to lexical design
UNL approach to lexical design

Semantic units of UNL (universal words, UW) are designed on the basis of natural language (English) words which can be semantically modified if need be

Prague, May 12, 2008

unl strategy
UNL strategy

Lexical meanings of the natural language are represented by UWs.

  • Lexical meaning coincides with the meaning of an unambiguous English word
  • Lexical meaning coincides with one of the senses of an unambiguous English word
  • Lexical meaning does not coincide with any of the lexical meanings of English

Prague, May 12, 2008

disambiguation of natural word senses
Disambiguation of natural word senses

Coach: bus, trainer, train, drill,...

  • coach(icl>bus>transport)
  • сoach(icl>person,obj>sportsman)
  • coach(icl>do,obj>sportsman)
  • coach(icl>do,obj>student)

Prague, May 12, 2008

slide36

Formation of new UWs

прибежать

прилететь

приплыть

приползти

come(met>run)

come(met>plane)

come(met>swim)

come(met>crawl)

Prague, May 12, 2008

formation of new uws
Formation of new UWs

жениться marry(agt>man)

выходить замуж marry(agt>woman)

Prague, May 12, 2008