Waste Vocab • High waste approach • Unavoidable product of economic growth • dealt with by burying, burning, or shipping • WASTE MANAGEMENT • Low waste approach • Waste can be potential resource • Harmful substances shouldn’t be used • WASTE PREVENTION
Landfills • Leachate • Methane gas recovery • Liners
Reuse • Drink containers • Lunch bags • Grocery bags • Tupperware
Reduce • Pay as you throw • Pay for the amount of trash you throw away instead of a monthly/annual fee • Recycling is taken away free • 3M Pollution Pays Program • Redesign equipment, fewer hazardous materials, recycled chemical outputs, made nonpolluting products • Saved over $750 million in waste disposal costs
Reduce • Packaging • Make products last longer • Precycling – do I really need this?
Recycle • Primary • Closed loop • Creates products of the same type • Secondary • Open loop • Converted into new products
Compost • Rich in organic matter and soil nutrients • Microorganisms break down waste
MRFs materials recovery facility • Separates trash from materials that can be recycled • Recycles or burns remaining combustible waste • Problems: • Expensive • Energy to separate trash • Must have large input of garbage • Toxic pollutants http://www.recyclebank.com/recycling
Source separation • Separate trash from recyclables at home or business • Advantages: • Little pollution • Moderate operating costs and more jobs • Less energy • Problems: • Rely on people to correctly separate • Hard to compete with MRFs
Versatility • Flexible or rigid; transparent or opaque. • Look like leather, wood, or silk. • Made into toys or heart valves. • The basic raw materials for plastic are petroleum and/or natural gas. • These fossil fuels are sometimes combined with other elements, such as oxygen or chlorine, to make different types of plastic.
What to do with my soda bottle? • Throw it in the trash (Landfill) • Recycle it and reuse it! • Incinerate it for energy
1 PET Polyethylene Terephthalate • Two-liter beverage bottles, mouthwash bottles, boil-in-bag pouches.
2 HDPE High Density Polyethylene • Milk jugs, trash bags, detergent bottles.
3 PVC Polyvinyl Chloride • Cooking oil bottles, packaging around meat • Burning PVC plastic, which contains 57% chlorine when pure, forms dioxins, a highly toxic group of chemicals that build up in the food chain.
4 LDPE Low Density Polyethylene • Grocery bags, produce bags, food wrap, bread bags
5 PP Polypropylene • Yogurt containers, shampoo bottles, straws, margarine tubs, diapers.
6 PS Polystyrene • Hot beverage cups, take-home boxes, egg cartons, meat trays, cd cases.
7 Other • All other types of plastics or packaging made from more than one type of plastic.
Not Economical • In recent years, several plastics recycling companies have closed their doors. • They claimed they could not sell their products at a price that would allow them to stay in business. • Thanks to the relatively low cost of petroleum, the price of virgin plastic is so inexpensive that recycled plastic cannot compete. • The price of virgin resin is about 40 percent lower than that of recycled resin.
Plastic Energy! • Stored energy - made from fossil fuels. • Contain as much energy as petroleum or natural gas • much more energy than other types of garbage. • an ideal fuel for waste-to-energy plants.
Because recycled plastic is more expensive, people aren’t exactly lining up to buy it. Surveys conducted by Procter & Gamble and others show that while most people expect their plastic to be recycled, they won’t go out of their way or pay a few cents more to buy a bottle made of recycled plastic. Recyclers say plastics recycling won’t be profitable until we close the loop by creating more demand for recycled plastics.
Paper or Plastic? 20-40% less E to manufacture plastic 1 truckload of plastic = 7 truckloads of paper