Math Interventions

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# Math Interventions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Math Interventions. By Brian Stagg March 7, 2002 CBC. Background. Current math curriculum is sequential Skills deficits become cumulative About 5% to 6% of students are Math LD 40% of 4 th graders scored Below Basic Level Many students struggle with math especially fluency.

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## Math Interventions

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### Math Interventions

By Brian Stagg

March 7, 2002

CBC

Background
• Current math curriculum is sequential
• Skills deficits become cumulative
• About 5% to 6% of students are Math LD
• 40% of 4th graders scored Below Basic Level
• Many students struggle with math especially fluency
Common Skills Deficits
• Mastery of Computational Skills
• Rules
• Basic Operations
• Fluency
• Mathematic Applications
77

+ 4

174

66

-58

12

3

+3

0

4

-3

1

3

+2

1

5

-3

2

Common Errors
Errors cont.
• Carrying and Borrowing
• Computation and operations
• Both effect fluency and accuracy
Assessment
• Norm-referenced
• WIAT
• WJ-III
• Stanford Diagnostic Mathematic Test (SDTM)
• KeyMath-Revised
• Weaknesses
• Too few problems for proper assessment
Assessment CBM
• Assess a single skill
• Assess multiple skills
• Assesses fluency and accuracy
Other Assessments
• Error analysis: looking at a common error over many problems
• CBM can be effective in determining EA
• Clinical Interviews
• CI entails asking the student to talk through the steps he or she used to a solve a problem
Conducting CBM
• Use district scope and sequence list of computational skills (appendix)
• Construct 2 to 3 probe sheets with about 30 – 35 problems
• Directions (see appendix)
Scoring
• Digits correct
• Add, Sub. Multiply is digits below the line

75

x26

450

150_

2850

Scoring cont.

75

x26

435

285_

3415

• Division: GOOD LUCK (consult a book)
• Percent Correct: divide # of problems correct by total # of problems
• Find systematic errors
• Specific skills deficits
• Chart progress
• Development of short and long term goals
Interventions
• Self-Monitoring
• Cover,Copy, and Compare
• Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (with parental involvement)
• Increasing Fluency with timing and reinforcement
Self-Monitoring
• Number of Problems completed and/or accuracy
• Student charts progress on a graph/chart (example in appendix)
• Cover, Copy and Compare
Cover Copy and Compare
• A sheet with about 10 problems w/answers in left column and two other columns (copy and compare)
• Covers problem
• Then copies the problem and answer
• Best for basic math facts
Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT)
• “Combines self-management techniques and group contingencies within a peer tutoring format” (Rathvon, 1999; pp. 195).
• Resources
• Paired-partners
• Flash cards w/problems and computational steps
• Problem drill sheets
• 30 minutes
• 4 section paper w/ ‘Try 1’ ‘try 2’ ‘help’ and ‘try 3’
RPT cont.
• Procedure
• Partners set a team goal and individual goal for number of problems answered correct
• One student act as teacher and gives flashcards
• The other answers the problems on 4-section paper
• Try 1: 1st attempt
• Try 2: ‘teacher’ prompt from card
• Help: ‘teacher’ models with instruction
• Try 3: retry
• Switch roles after 10 minutes
• After 2nd set each person completes a problem drill sheet
• If goals are met record on score card, and after 5 wins receive reinforcement item
RPT with Parental Involvement
• Same as RPT but with a parent component
• Procedure
• Inform parents of the program with a letter (Rathvon, 1999. pp. 202-203)
• Same procedure but after 3 wins send a parent notification to reward the child
• One variation is that the parents would return the note indicating the reinforcement given
• RPT allows you chart progress and evaluate instruction
Other Interventions to Increase Fluency and Accuracy
• Other types of progress charts and reinforcement schedules
• % completed in time limit
• % accurate in time limit
• Homework completion
• Reinforcement schedules at home or school
Alternative Interventions
• Cognitive Learning Strategies (Bruning, Schraw, & Ronning, 1999)
• Focus on processes, structures and decisions, not on answers
• Problem-solving approaches
• Applications
Considerations for Interventions
• Do not be misguided or misdirected
• Prevent habituating incorrect routines
• Guarantee success (more correct answers)
• Offer alternative ways to display proficiency in math
• (Cawley & Parmar, 1991)
Considerations for CBC
• Intervention at school and reinforcement at home
• CBM measures
• Assess
• Chart progress
• Data collection
• Parents practice and model homework with the child
• Peer tutoring
References
• Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G. J., & Ronning, R. R. (1999). Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
• Cawley, J. F., & Parmar, R. S. (1991). Maximizing mathematics success in the regular classroom. In G. Stoner, M. R. Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems. Silver Spring, MD: NASP.
• Fleischner, J. E., & Manheimer, M. A. (1997). Math interventions for students with learning disabilities: Myths and realities. School Psychology Review, 26, 397-413.
• Rathvon, N. (1999). Effective school interventions: Strategies for enhancing academic achievement and social competence. New York: Guilford Press.
• Shapiro, E. S. (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
• Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Conducting school-based assessments of child and adolescent behavior. New York: Guilford Press.