In the name of God. In the name of God. Transfusion. Presented by: a.pourhosseini. Background.
In the name of God
In emergency situations, type O-negative blood may be transfused to all recipients. O-negative and type-specific red blood cells are equally safe for emergency transfusion. Problems are associated with the administration of 4 or more units of O-negative blood, because there is a significant increase in the risk of hemolysis. In patients with clinically significant levels of cold agglutinins, blood should be administered through a blood warmer. If these antibodies are present in high titer, hypothermia is contraindicated.
A healthy adult can lose up to 15% of total blood volume (class I hemorrhage or up to 750 mL) with only minor effects on the circulation. Loss of 15 to 30% of blood volume (class II hemorrhage or 750 to 1500 mL) is associated with tachycardia and decreased pulse pressure but, importantly, a normal blood pressure. Loss of 30 to 40% (class III hemorrhage or 1500 to 2000 mL) results in tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, oliguria, and changes in mental status. Class IV hemorrhage is loss of >40% of blood volume and is considered life-threatening.