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LACK OF INTEREST IN MATERIAL THINGS AND EMPHASIS ON THE SPIRITUAL. PURITY, TRUE PATH. THE WHEEL OF LAW OF DHARMA. FAITH, CONNECTION TO THE EARTH ANDFERTILITY. INDIAN FACTS. FORM OF GOV’T – Federal Republic (gained independence from the UK in 1947) CAPITAL – New Delhi

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LACK OF INTEREST IN MATERIAL THINGS AND EMPHASIS ON THE SPIRITUAL

PURITY, TRUE PATH

THE WHEEL OF LAW OF DHARMA

FAITH, CONNECTION TO THE EARTH ANDFERTILITY

indian facts
INDIAN FACTS
  • FORM OF GOV’T – Federal Republic (gained independence from the UK in 1947)
  • CAPITAL – New Delhi
  • POPULATION – 2nd most populated in the world
  • LAND SIZE –slightly more than 1/3 the size of the U.S.
  • CLIMATE – Varies from Tropical Monsoon in the south to Temperate in the north
  • CURRENCY – Rupee
  • MILITARY – Voluntary
  • RELIGION – Hindu (80%)
early south asia
EARLY SOUTH ASIA
  • Modern India traces its roots back to the Indus River Valley located in South Asia
  • Harappans– earliest civilization found in this area, dates back to about 2,500 b.c., disappeared around 1,500 b.c.
  • Ruins demonstrate:

1. urban planning (organized cities)

2. grid pattern streets

3. multi-storied homes

4. bathrooms and sewage systems

aryans
ARYANS
  • Aryans – conquered the Indus River Valley around 1500 b.c. and then moved southeast into the Ganges Plain
  • Organized into tribes, each was led by a rajah
  • Cattle– basis of their diet and economy, wealth was measured in cattle and they were used as money
  • Men dominated society, which was largely agricultural
social structure1
Social Structure
  • 1. Brahmans – Priests
  • 2. Kshatriyas – Warriors/princes
  • 3. Vaisyas – merchants/farmers
  • 4. Sudras – peasants/servants
  • 5. Pariahs – so “unclean” not even part of the system, do the toughest and dirtiest jobs
hinduism
HINDUISM
  • Aryans believed in a religion that has evolved into what we know as Hinduism
beliefs
BELIEFS
  • Evolved over hundreds of years, (no one person began it)
  • Brahman – universal spirit, god (other gods are manifestations of Brahma)
  • Trinity – 3 most important manifestations are:
brahma
BRAHMA
  • The Creator
vishnu
VISHNU
  • The Preserver
slide16
SIVA
  • The Destroyer
key concepts
KEY CONCEPTS

REINCARNATION

- The rebirth of the soul

key concepts cont
KEY CONCEPTS cont.

KARMA

- Idea that how a person lives their life will determine what form that person takes in the next life (what comes around goes around)

key concepts cont1
KEY CONCEPTS cont.

DHARMA

  • Duties of a particular varna (class)
  • If you fulfill your dharma you get

have good karma

key concepts cont2
KEY CONCEPTS cont.

MOKSHA

- State in which a person’s soul is freed from the cycle of reincarnation (heaven)

key concepts cont3
KEY CONCEPTS cont.

AHIMSA

- Belief that all life is sacred and needs to be protected

sacred hindu writings the vedas
SACRED HINDU WRITINGS: THE VEDAS
  • Ancient poems, legends, hymn, rituals… that formed the basis of Aryan religious life
  • There are 4, the oldest dating back to about 1000 B.C.
slide23
Draw a picture representing the main ideas of Hinduism (Dharma, Karma, Reincarnation, Moksha).
  • Relate it to something YOU want to achieve…a goal you have.
  • Also in include a written explanation of the process that explains the relationship of dharma, karma, reincarnation, and moksha.
the buddha
THE BUDDHA
  • Siddhartha Gautama– the founder of Buddhism, born in India in 566 B.C.
  • born into the Kshatriya class, lived a wealthy but sheltered life
  • wanted to understand why people suffer andhowto minimize it
the buddha cont
THE BUDDHA cont.
  • believed he found the answers while meditating, believed he received “enlightenment”
  • he preached his message and became known as “The Buddha” (enlightened one)
  • he rejected the caste system, a person’s position in life should depend on the person, not their birth
the 8 fold path leads to nirvana
THE 8-FOLD PATH LEADS TO NIRVANA
  • Nirvana – state of enlightenment that frees the soul from the cycle of rebirth
slide41
INDIAN EMPIRES

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078799813/student_view0/unit1/chapter3/interactive_maps.html#

mauryan empire
MAURYAN EMPIRE
  • Founded by Chandragupta Maurya– he ruled from 324 B.C. – 301 B.C.
  • Capital was in northeastern India (modern-day Patna)
  • Highly centralized gov’t
mauryan cont
MAURYAN cont.
  • Asoka – greatest ruler of the empire, maybe all of India????
  • Adopted Buddhist ideas to improve the empire (hospitals, trees and shelters along roads…)
mauryans cont
MAURYANS cont.
  • Under Asoka India also became a regional economic/trading power
  • Empire ended in

183 B.C.

gupta empire
GUPTA EMPIRE
  • Founded by Candra Gupta in 320
  • same capital as the Mauryans
  • Became the dominant power in northern India, loose control of central India
gupta cont
GUPTA cont.
  • Golden age of Indian culture
  • Hindu and Buddhist arts flourished
guptas cont
GUPTAS cont.
  • Traded with China, SE Asia and the Mediterranean
  • Many pilgrims came to India to see Hindu and Buddhist temples and shrines
  • Empire ended in the mid 600s
imperialism
IMPERIALISM
  • The extension of a nation’s power over other lands.

(One country’s domination of the political, economic, and social life of another country)

why be an imperialist
Why be an Imperialist?

1. Political rivalries/Prestige

  • European countries needed colonies to compete with other Europeans.

2. Desire for New Markets/Economics

  • New territory to get raw materials and sell finished goods.

3. Seeking New Opportunities

  • Native Europeans could advance socially by taking an assignment in a colony

4. “Civilizing Mission”/Racism

  • Some Europeans thought it was their duty to impose their culture on other, less “civilized” peoples.
forms of imperialism
Forms of Imperialism

1. Colony: territory that an imperial power ruled directly

2. Protectorate: territory that had its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power.

3. Sphere of Influence: a region in which the imperial power had exclusive investment or trading rights.

british in india
BRITISH IN INDIA
  • Involvement in India dates back to the 1500s
  • 1650 – British trading forts established
  • Mid-1700s – Britain, through the East India Company, strengthened its control of Indian territory
the sepoy rebellion
The Sepoy Rebellion
  • By 1857, the East India Co. controlled most of India
  • 1857: Thesepoys (Indian soldiers) rebelled against their British commanders
    • The Indians resented Christianity and European customs
results of the sepoy rebellion
Results of the Sepoy Rebellion
  • Rebellion spread across northern and central India
  • Forced British to take “direct control” of India (Queen Victoria was now the Empress of India)
  • Viceroy System Imposed: A viceroy ruled India as the monarch’s representative
  • Fueled Indian Nationalism
effects of british rule
EFFECTS OF BRITISH RULE

COSTS /Negatives

BENEFITS/Positives

Education

Improved transportation (RRs and canals)

Medical care

Honest, efficient gov’t

  • Racism/discrimination
  • Increased unemployment
  • Increased taxes
  • Economic crisis
  • Food shortage/starvation
nationalism
NATIONALISM
  • The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
  • Video
reactions to british rule
Reactions to British Rule
  • 1885: Indian National Congress (INC) formed
    • Accepted ideas of democracy and equality
    • Initially used peaceful protests to gain more power for the Indians.
    • Leader in Indian struggle for independence.
    • The INC was divided by religion
      • The Hindus (majority) and Muslims (minority) did not trust each other.
gandhi
GANDHI
  • Worked for Indian independence starting before WWI (1914-1918)
  • Known as India’s “Great Soul”
  • Was a lawyer in England and South Africa before returning to India
slide62
--- Gandhi practiced civil disobedience – non-violent refusal to obey unjust laws--- Satyagraha: a term which means “truth force” and describes the nonviolent protests
slide63
He believed nonviolence would embarrass and humiliate the British, eventually forcing them to grant India freedom
the amritsar massacre
The Amritsar Massacre
  • 1919 - 10,000 unarmed Indians gathered for a political meeting
    • British troops blocked the only entrance and began firing upon the crowd.
    • 400 people were killed, 1200 wounded.
  • The Amritsar Massacre spurred even more Indian people to join the fight for independence.
the salt march
The Salt March
  • The British controlled (and taxed) all salt in India
  • 1930: Gandhi led thousands on a march to the sea
    • They made salt out of sea water
    • Eventually, Gandhi was arrested like many of his followers already had been.
limited self rule
Limited Self-Rule
  • 1935: Government of India Act
    • Created a constitution for India that gave provincial legislatures control over areas such as agriculture, education, public health, and public works.
    • Also gave 5 million Indians the right to vote and increased the role of Indians in government
  • The INC (at the urging of Gandhi) accepted the act even though it didn’t offer complete independence.
hindu muslim relations
Hindu-Muslim Relations
  • Hindus outnumbered Muslims 3 to 1 in India
  • 1937: The Muslim League, led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, split with the Congress Party
    • The Muslim League demanded a separate Muslim nation (Pakistan).
  • Hindus, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, wanted a united India.
  • The independence movement was permanently fractured.
  • Gandhi did not want the creation of Pakistan
post world war ii
POST-WORLD WAR II
  • British colonial control of South Asia ended after WWII (1945)
  • The Indian subcontinent was divided into two countries, Pakistan and India (August 15, 1947)
on the move
ON THE MOVE
  • 12 million Muslims and Hindus moved across the borders of the newly created countries
  • Violence broke out and more than a 200,000 people were killed(including Mohandas Gandhi)
jawaharlal nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
  • First prime minister of India
  • Leader of India’s government from 1947-1964
nehru s goals for india
NEHRU’S GOALS FOR INDIA
  • modern, industrial economy
  • religious freedom

3. social equality

slide76
GOVERNMENT………

FEDERAL

REPUBLIC

(same 3 branches of gov’t as U.S.)

Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh

slide77
POPULATION: 1,173,108,018

………..2ND LARGEST IN THE WORLD BEHIND CHINA……THE UNITED STATES IS 3RD

slide78
N

E

W

D

E

L

H

I

CAPTIAL CITY………..

demographic tidbits
DEMOGRAPHIC TIDBITS
  • Languages: Hindi and English (many others)
  • Monetary Unit: Rupee ($1.00 = 44 rupees)
  • Life Expectancy: F – 71.9 M – 66.9
  • Education: compulsory from 6-14 (Lit. = 66%)
  • Suffrage: 18 yrs and universal
concerns
CONCERNS
  • EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION (pollution)
  • OVERPOPULATION
  • POVERTY
  • FOREIGN RELATIONS WITH PAKISTAN (issue of Kashmir)
quick history
QUICK HISTORY
  • Independence – 1947
    • Created as a home for Muslims
    • Originally created as one country on two sides of India (West and East Pakistan)
pakistan splits
PAKISTAN SPLITS

Bangladesh – in 1971 East Pakistan declared its independence and became Bangladesh

comparison
COMPARISON

INDIA

PAKISTAN

Population – 176,242,949

Main Religion – Islam – (97%)

Gov’t – Republic

Defense Budget - 4.14 billion

Population – 1,166,079,217

Main Religion – Hindu (81%)

Gov’t – Federal Republic

Defense Budget – $22.3 billion

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