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habitability of the icy galilean satellites:. J. Chela-Flores The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy and Instituto de Estudios Avanzados , Caracas, Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. evolutionary Biomarkers with EJSM and penetrators.

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habitability of the icy galilean satellites
habitability of the icy galilean satellites:

J. Chela-Flores

The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy and Instituto de EstudiosAvanzados, Caracas, RepublicaBolivariana de Venezuela.

evolutionary Biomarkers with EJSM and penetrators

slide2

Resurfacing on Europa: a key in the searchforevolutionarybiomarkers

slide5

H

TaylorValley

slide6

Resurfacing on terrestriallakes:

How do microbialmatsreach the bottomof the lakeicy surface?

Prostrate matscarrying a consortiaofbacteria some notyetidentified

slide7
Resurfacingon terrestriallakes: How do microbesreachfrom the bottomto the top of the lakeicy surface?

Microbial mats

Microbialmats on the surfaceof

Lake Hoare, Taylor Valley

Microbialmat

slide8

Resurfacingon terrestriallakes:

Trafficofbiogenicsulfurthrough the lake’sicy cover

Dry Valley lakes

Quantityofchemicalelements (in kgs per year)

biogenic s ulfur in the solar system
BiogenicSulfurin the Solar System
  • Sulfurisstronglyfractionatedexclusivelyby
  • biogenicactivityin theavailablesamplesof
  • the Solar System

The delta34S-parameter

Sulfate coexisting

with seawater

-40

  • Terrestrial sources (biogenic) in basins off California

Meteoritic

Lunar

  • Wehaveshownhowbiogenicsulfurpatches are producedbyresurfacingofan
  • Earthanalogof Europa: Lake Hoare
resurfacing on europa a dust cloud has been released by micrometeroid impacts
Resurfacingon Europa:A dustcloudhasbeenreleasedbymicrometeroidimpacts

Credits: Miljković, K. and Taylor, E. A. (2007), The LAPLACE Consortium (Blancet al, 2009) and McCordet al. (1998)

possible sources of the stains
Possible sources of the stains
  • External source: Ions may be implanted from the Jovian plasma.
  • Internal source: Sulfur may be due to microbes
  • living around hydrothermal vents, reaching the icy
  • surface by cryovolcanism.
  • What is the nature of biogenicity?
  • One way to decide may be with penetrators.
  • Could the source of the patchesbebacteria, or
  • eveneukaryotes or metazoans?
which eukaryotes or metazoans can live in extreme environments
Whicheukaryotes, ormetazoans, can live in extreme environments?

(deVereet al. 2003-2010)

  • Expose-E was carried back to Earth by Space Shuttle Discovery. These experiments investigate to what extent terrestrial organisms are able to cope with extreme environmental conditions.
  • XanthoriaElegans, the elegant sunburst
  • lichen,was outside the European
  • Columbus laboratory. It is a macroscopic
  • composite of a fungus and an alga.

Expose-E experiment unit outside (18 months)

Europe’s Columbus ISS lab module.

The American elegant sunburst lichen

slide13

Some extremophiles are more complex than single-celled eukaryotes

Animals with bilateral symmetry found in extreme environments include the Antarctic krill

slide14

Another extreme metazoan:

Tardigrades (water bears)

(0.1-1.0mm in length, water-dwelling, segmented animals)

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Echiniscustestudo, a marine species

slide15

Northern Rock Crawler

Grylloblattacampodeiformis

For most of the year, these ice insects remain frozen

simple aquatic metazoans in extreme conditions
Simple aquatic metazoans in extreme conditions
  • In the Antarctic analog of Europa there is an ecosystem with simple metazoans.
  • Our ecosystem is underneath McMurdo Sound:
slide18

Withcurrrentinstrumentation, howcouldwe test foreukaryotes or metazoans in the Europanocean?

Credit: Richard Greenberg, “Europa”, Springer 2005

slide19

Credit:

British Penetrator Consortium

Penetrator

penetrators for the icy surface of europa
Penetrators for the icy surface of Europa

For geochemical data:

Credit:

UK British Consortium

slide21

Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer (ExoMars)

The instrument design has a total mass smaller than 2kg