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earPod : Efficient, Hierarchical, Eyes-free Menu Selection. Shengdong Zhao Department of Computer Science University of Toronto July 9, 2008. Outline. Research problem Previous research Research questions Research strategy and focus Prototype Empirical studies Contributions

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earpod efficient hierarchical eyes free menu selection

earPod: Efficient, Hierarchical, Eyes-free Menu Selection

Shengdong Zhao

Department of Computer Science University of Toronto

July 9, 2008

outline
Outline

Research problem

Previous research

Research questions

Research strategy and focus

Prototype

Empirical studies

Contributions

Future work

research problems and objectives
Research problems and objectives
  • Motivating problem
    • How can users interact with information devices in mobile environments when their visual attention is taken up by other tasks (e.g navigation through the environment)
  • Objective
    • To develop interactive techniques that support user control and feedback without relying on the visual modality
  • Scope
    • This research focuses on menu selection because this is an elemental task(Foley et al. ‘84)
previous research
Previous research
  • Visual menus
    • Linear menus (e.g., Sear and Schneiderman ’94; Cockburn and Gin ‘06, etc.)
    • Radial menus (e.g., Callahan et al. ‘88; Kurtenbach ’93, etc.)
  • Auditory applications
    • Accessibility for the blind (e.g., Edwards ‘89; Mynatt and Weber ‘94, etc.)
    • Mobile auditory interfaces (e.g., Roy and Schmandt ‘96; Pirhonen et al. ’02, etc.)
  • Auditory menus
    • Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems (e.g., Marics and Engelbeck 1997; Resnick and Virzi ’92, etc.)
    • Head gesture auditory pie menu (Brewster et al. ‘03)
research questions
Research questions
  • How to design usable eyes-free menus?
    • Designing interfaces with reasonable levels of efficiency and ease of use
    • Facilitating a smooth novice to expert transition
  • How to work around the problems with serial and temporal audio feedback?
    • Facilitating scan and compare of menu items
    • Providing users with a sense of control and responsiveness
research strategy
Research strategy

Define research problem

Review literature

Define general design concept

Perform iteratively design and pilot studies for prototype

Conduct empirical studies to explore prototype properties

Derive design recommendations based on empirical results

selected input and output modalities
Selected input and output modalities
  • Touch input
    • Combines relative and absolute pointing (Hinckley ‘01)
    • Can be robustly operated in motion (Buxton et al. ‘85)
    • Can be combined with other input devices (Hinckley and Sinclair ‘99; Rekimoto et al. ‘03)
  • Auditory feedback
    • The other primary remote sense (Gaver ‘97)
    • The only other sense with a natural language*
earpod prototype
earPod prototype

A touch-sensitive device with software to perform eyes-free, hierarchical menu selection

earPod prototype used commercial touchpad augmented with custom-built plastic cover, with cable to computer for voice output

Built in University of Toronto in 2006 with Pierre Dragicevic

earpod interaction
earPod interaction

Novice

Intermediate

Intermediate

Expert

prototype design
Prototype design
  • Efficiency
    • By-pass audio
    • Use interruptible audio feedback
    • Use non-speech audio
  • Sense of control
    • Synchronous communication (reactive audio feedback)
  • Simplicity and power
    • Gliding and tapping
  • Easy to learn
    • Use spatial audio to reinforce mental model
    • Self-discoverable transition
empirical studies
Empirical studies

Motivating questions:

  • How does earPod compare with a popular visual menu selection technique used by iPod?
  • How does earPod compare with a number of competitor techniques with different modalities and menu styles?
  • What are learning behaviors for earPod and the related techniques?
  • How does earPod and the related techniques perform with a visually demanding primary task?
evaluation issues
Evaluation issues
  • Modality
    • Visual
    • Audio
    • Dual
  • Menu style
    • Linear
    • Radial
4 empirical studies
4 empirical studies

4 empirical studies were conducted at UofT in 2006-08

Experiment 1:earPod vs. iPod (audio radial vs. visual linear)

Experiment 2: 3 x 2 study (3 modalities x 2 menu styles)

Experiment 3: 2 x 2 longitudinal study (audio linear, visual linear, audio radial, visual radial)

Experiment 4: 3 x 2 dual-task study (3 modalities x 2 menu styles)

experimental 1 design
Experimental 1 design
  • Goal: compare earPod with iPod-like linear menu
  • 60-90 minute session, within-subject, counter-balanced
  • Setup:

12 participants x 2 techniques (audio and visual)

x (40+80) items for the 2 menu configurations (8 and 8x8) x 4 blocks

= 11,520 menu selections in total.

results response time
Results: response time

Block number

Block number

results response time1
Results: response time

Block number

Block number

results response time2
Results: response time

Block number

Block number

experiment 1 results and discussion
Experiment 1 - results and discussion

earPod has comparable performance with iPod-like linear menu

earPod user performance improves more rapidly than that of iPod-like linear menu

With practice, earPod can outperform iPod-like linear menu

experiment 2 design
Experiment 2 design
  • Goal: systematic investigation of modality of feedback and menu style
  • 60-minute, within subject, counter-balanced
  • Setup

12 participants x

6 techniques x

8 menu items x

13 blocks (12 blocks + 1 practice block)

= 7488 menu selections in total

slide25

Response time

Visual

radial

Audio visual

radial

Audio visual

linear

Visual

linear

Audio

radial

Audio

linear

experiment 2 results and discussion
Experiment 2 - results and discussion
  • Accuracy
    • Comparable performance among all techniques
  • Speed
    • visual radial ~ dual radial < audio radial ~ visual linear ~ dual linear < audio linear
  • Modality
    • Visual ~ dual < audio
  • Menu style
    • Radial < linear
experiment 3 longitudinal study
Experiment 3: longitudinal study

Goal: learning of earPod and related techniques

5 one-hour sessions in a week, between-subject

Setup:

2 participants (per technique) x

4 techniques x

64 items for 1 menu configuration (8 x 8) x

7 blocks per day x

5 days

= 17920 menu selections in total

gliding to tapping transition
Gliding to tapping transition

Items explored

Tapping percentage

Day

Day

experiment 3 results and discussion
Experiment 3 - results and discussion

Novice performance is determined by modality, expert performance is determined by menu style

Rapid learning is observed for earPod

Users can perform tapping for 70-80% of the 64 menu items from day 3 onwards

Audio linear has comparable performance with visual linear from day 3 onwards

experiment 4 dual task study
Experiment 4: dual-task study

Goal:

Investigate the properties of using earPod and the related techniques as a secondary task in a dual-task setting and their impact on the visually demanding primary task

experiment 4 dual task study1
Experiment 4: dual-task study
  • Dual-task
    • Primary task: simulated driving
    • Secondary task: menu selection
  • External validity: similar settings have been successfully used by Salvucci et al. ‘01, ‘02, ‘05
experiment 4 design
Experiment 4 design
  • Conditions
    • Desktop
      • 12 participants X 6 techniques X 8 items of 1 menu configurations X (3 + 1) blocks = 2304 menu selections
    • Driving
      • 12 participants X 6 techniques X 8 items of 1 menu configurations X (1 + 1) blocks = 1152 menu selections
  • Measures
    • Desktop
      • Speed & accuracy of menu selection
    • Driving
      • Speed & accuracy of menu selection (secondary task)
      • Driving performance (primary task)
experiment 4 results and discussion
Experiment 4 - results and discussion
  • Audio techniques work better with a visually demanding primary task
    • Comparable performance with visual techniques, less impact on primary tasks
  • Although dual-channel techniques have similar performance with audio techniques, users prefer single channel audio feedback
summary of empirical studies
Summary of empirical studies

earPod has comparable performance with visual linear menus

Transition from novice to expert for earPod is fast

Audio techniques work better with a visually demanding primary task

Users only pay attention to the appropriate channel when are presented with both channels of feedback

contributions
Contributions

Developed a novel interaction technique called earPod

Conducted empirical evaluations on earPod and related techniques

Derived design recommendation for incorporating earPod and related techniques to mobile devices

future work
Future work

Explore eyes-free menu techniques for long and dynamic lists

Investigate the role of compression and dichotic listening

Extend earPod to other mobile scenarios (e.g., walking, running, etc.)

Develop eyes-free interaction techniques for other tasks and applications (e.g., drag & drop, text entry, etc.)