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DNA. EMILY ABRAMSON ELIAS ARMAO. Who Discovered DNA?.

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DNA

EMILY ABRAMSON ELIAS ARMAO

who discovered dna
Who Discovered DNA?

It is debated as to who the actual credit for discovering DNA goes to. The fundamental discovery of DNA usually goes to James Watson and Francis Crick who were discovered the double helix structure in 1953. However, many also give some of the credit to Rosalind Franklin.

To the right is James Watson and Francis Crick, posing for a picture, along with Rosalind.

so what
So… What?

What the Heck is DNA?

So…

What on Earth does all of that mean?

DNA is embedded in every cell of every living being. It carries the genetic codes of every different being, and makes every person unique.

  • DNA: The dictionary defines DNA as: A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA. DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. The sequence of nucleotides determines individual hereditary characteristics.
what does dna look like
What does DNA look like?

This is an actual, microscopic picture of DNA. This is smaller than a single cell, unfathomably small to a human’s perception.

DNA looks almost like a twisted ladder, spiraling forever, it seems like. However, there is much more to that ladder than meets the microscopic eye.

In each rung of this tiny ladder, there are codes. These codes are genetic “files” for the body that tells us what genes we have, like brown eyes, blonde hair, etc…

There are thousands of strands of DNA in every cell of your body, and there are millions, if not trillions of cells in a human. That’s a lot of DNA.

genetic codes
Genetic Codes???
  • What the heck is a genetic code, and what does it have to do with DNA?
  • The genetic code of the DNA strand is how information is stored and transferred throughout the DNA. It runs throughout the “rungs” of the DNA.
  • Scientists classify the codes into four different letters: G,A,T, and C.
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Etc…

This slide helps show what genetic codes are. Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine all show the different ways that DNA can be coded. Four simple codes are what make up the entirety of human civilization, and are what make each and every one of us unique. Imagine that.

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The Sugar Phosphate Backbone (or the banister of the spiral staircase), is how the DNA stays organized. Without this spine, the DNA strands would be unsupported and would simply fall apart.

  • Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, Guanine.
  • These (the scientific words that the four letters T, C, A, and G come from) are genetic codes. They are in each strand of DNA.
dna and crimes
DNA and Crimes
  • One key place DNA is found is in fingerprints.
  • Since DNA is unique from person to person, fingerprints, tongue prints etc… are also unique.
  • So, DNA samples left at crime scenes (a hair follicle, a skin cell, etc…) can be a clue to solving a murder.
so why do you have dna
So Why Do You Have DNA?

What exactly does DNA do?

  • DNA is in every cell of your body. It tells your body what to produce, in a sense. It literally controls the function and structure of your body.
  • DNA is what makes you you, your eyes, hair, face, etc… the way it is.
  • DNA also controls protein output and production.
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:D

DNA in real life!

  • DNA is fascinating. You have seen the pictures and drawings, but this is what DNA looks like in real life. This is what is in your body right now, but repeated a thousand times over.
fun fact
FUN FACT!
  • Fact: if you were to unravel a single DNA strand from a single cell in your body, it would stretch to be about six feet long. If there are more than a million DNA strands in your body, imagine how long that would be stretched out…

WOW!!!!

faulty dna
Faulty DNA

Scientists have discovered that DNA can rupture and break, and this is sometimes why babies have birth defects. This particular picture is an artist’s rendering of someone’s DNA with Huntington’s Disease. However, Scientists have also recently discovered that DNA, not unlike the cells of the human body themselves, can repair itself.

defects cont
Defects Cont…
  • Many birth defects are hereditary. That means that, in the womb, the baby does not get all the chromosomes from it’s mother and father, resulting in either physical or mental deformities.
  • It is thought that about 20% of all birth defects are hereditary.
  • To the left is a picture of normal chromosomes at the early stages of pregnancy.
healthy vs unhealthy
Healthy vs. Unhealthy

Healthy, undamaged DNA

DNA damaged by UV Radiation

damaged dna
Damaged DNA

DNA can be damaged by many things, such as extended drug use, sun exposure without protection, and mistreating your body for long periods of time in general.

One of the main health concerns out there is UV ray exposure. Such exposure can break or fracture the tiny strands of DNA inside of your skin cells.

However, if your DNA is broken, it is not the end! Scientists have recently discovered “repair shops” in the human body where cells actually fix the DNA cells. Amazing!

more about dna
MORE ABOUT DNA

Hemophiliac Chart

  • DNA is passed directly from the mother. All though it contains traits from both the mother and the father, the actual DNA is passed directly from the mother.
  • This means that tracing maternal lines are much easier than tracing paternal lines.
  • The opposite chart is a trait chart of hemophiliac genes passed through a family.
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Fin.

Emily and I hope you enjoyed our PowerPoint and learned stuff about DNA!