Aim/Goal: How did Mohandas Gandhi’s philosophy of civil disobedience lead to India’s independence?Do Now: What are the consequences of independence?Homework: Create an obituary for Gandhi.
Born October 2, 1869 - died January 30 1948 Major political and spiritual leader of India Leader of the Indian Independence movement. Believed in Satyagraha, philosophy based on truth and non-violent resistance This philosophy was the way India gained independence Inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Accomplishments
Accomplishments • When he returned to India, he organized poor farmers and others to fight against discrimination and taxation. • Leader of the Indian National Congress • Led campaigns to end poverty, liberation of women, brotherhood among religions • Wanted to end caste discrimination • Swaraj, the independence of India from foreign domination. • Salt March in 1930, a major peaceful protest to end British imperialism
Biography • In May 1883, at the age of 13, Gandhi was married through his parents' arrangements • They had five children, the first of whom died in infancy. • At the age of 18 on in 1888, Gandhi went to Britain to study law
The Vegetarian Society • A group Gandhi became associated with while living in Britain • He promised his mother that he would observe all Hindu traditions
Biography • After graduating from law school, he moved to South Africa to practice law. • He encounters racism. • Indians were not considered full human beings. • Thrown out of a first-class railway compartment car, though he held a first-class ticket. • This event leads him to be leader of the Indian community.
Law career • Practicing law in South Africa • The skills he obtained in law school will help him in his quest for Indian independence.
Philosophy • Truth could only be attained through ahimsa (non-violence, love) and brahmacharya (celibacy, striving towards God). He was imprisoned numerous times in both South Africa and India. • Gandhi practiced non-violence and truth, in all situations. • He lived simply, organizing an ashram that was self-sufficient in its needs. • Made his own clothes – dhoti and shawl woven • Vegetarian diet. • He underwent long fasts, for both self-purification and protest.
Homespun • Gandhi encouraged Indian’s to be self sufficient. • He believed the less dependent upon the British the more likely they were to gain their independence
Peaceful Protest • Britain instituted a new tax on Salt. • Indians were outraged by this new tax. • March 12 to April 6 Gandhi and his followers launched a peaceful protest • The famous Salt March lasted for 248 miles from Ahmedabad to Dandi • Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. • This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British rule • Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.
Return to Britain • 1915 returns to India • He only makes one trip outside of India. • 1930 goes to Britain to discuss: • Independence • Freedom for political prisoners • Signs the Gandhi-Irwin pact that halts civil disobedience
Assassination • On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was shot and killed while having his nightly public walk • The assassin, Nathuram Godse, was a radical Hindu • Godse held Gandi responsible for weakening India • Godse and his co-conspirator Naravan Apte were later tried, convicted; they were executed on November 15, 1949 • Gandhi’s last words were "Oh God".
India Grieves • Jawaharlal Nehru radio address: • “Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country.” • Why was Gandhi's death a terrible blow to India?
The Legacy • The legacy of Gandhi lives on. He has influenced such leaders as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson Mandela. • Both of these leaders have used his principles of civil disobedience as a way to enact change.
Obituary: a notice of the death of a person, often with a biographical sketch, as in a newspaper. • Today, Ms. Barretta passed away. She was 95 years old. She is survived by her two sons. Ms. Barretta was the world’s greatest social studies teacher. She had many accomplishments, one of which included a Masters degree in History.
Your Task: • Write an obituary for Mohandas Gandhi. • This will be collected.