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Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity. Chapter Three. Agenda. Discuss Distinction between Gender and Sex Review Various Theoretical Explanations for Gender Differences Discuss Gender Roles Gender Roles & Gender Traits Gender Role Theory Varieties of Gender

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Chapter Three

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    1. Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity Chapter Three

    2. Agenda • Discuss Distinction between Gender and Sex • Review Various Theoretical Explanations for Gender Differences • Discuss Gender Roles • Gender Roles & Gender Traits • Gender Role Theory • Varieties of Gender • Gender Role Socialization

    3. Distinction Between Gender & Sex • Gender – refers to behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of men and women • Sex – refers to the biological aspects of being male or female • Both nature and nurture are important in forming gender • Case study: Dr. John Money and Brenda/Bruce

    4. From Table 3.4 in Text Theoretical Explanations for Gender Differences

    5. Table 3-4, p. 82

    6. Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference • Humans reproduce sexually and are made to be sexual beings • Each parent supplies a gamete, each with half of the genetic information (23 chromosomes), including a sex chromosome • Male: sperm (X or Y) • Female: egg/ovum (X) • Sex is determined at conception

    7. Sexual Differentiation in the Womb • Gestation: 9 months • 4-6 weeks: gonads begin to develop and sexual differentiation starts 1-2 weeks later • Sex chromosomes control development of: • internal sex organs • external sex organs • the embryo’s hormonal environment • the brain’s sexual differentiation

    8. Homologous Tissue: Male and female organs that began from the same prenatal tissue are called homologous.

    9. Development of the male and female external genitalia from the undifferentiated genital tubercle.

    10. Hormonal Development and Influences • Ovaries produce: • Estrogen: female sexual characteristics • Progesterone: menstrual cycle and pregnancy • Testes produce: • Androgens: development of male-typical characteristics

    11. Sex Chromosome Disorders • Over 70 sex chromosome abnormalities • Extra or missing sex chromosomes • 3 most common: • Klinefelter’s syndrome • Turner’s syndrome • XYY/XXX

    12. Klinefelter’s Syndrome • XXY – egg contained an extra X • 1/700 live male births • Develops male genitalia, but not fully • Tall, feminized body • Low testosterone levels; low in sexual desires • Gynecomastia • Infertile • Testosterone therapy

    13. XYY Syndrome / Triple X Syndrome • XYY or XXX – sperm contains an extra sex chromosome, or egg has an extra X • May be normal male (XYY) or normal female (XXX) • May have slight mental retardation and/or fertility problems

    14. Hormonal Irregularities • Hermaphrodite – born with fully developed testes and ovaries; extremely rare • Pseudohermaphrodite – external genitals appear on some level similar to both sexes • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) • Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)

    15. Gender Roles & Gender Traits Gender Role Theory Varieties of Gender Gender Role Socialization Gender Roles

    16. Gender Roles and Gender Traits • Gender stereotypes greatly influence our thoughts and interactions • Gender roles – culturally defined behaviors, attitudes, emotions, traits, mannerisms, appearances, and occupations that are appropriate for females and males • Gender traits – biologically determined differences between males and females

    17. Class Exercise:Discuss Gender Stereotypes • How are stereotypes generally supported? How are they challenged? How has our culture responded to efforts to change gender role stereotypes? • What messages did you learn in your family about gender? • How does gender role socialization occur before a child is born? • How are gender roles reinforced by your partner? • How does the use of language influence gender stereotypes? • How does the media support gender stereotypes? Does it present challenges?

    18. What stereotypes does this cartoon reinforce? Gender Stereotypes

    19. What stereotypes does this cartoon reinforce? Gender Stereotypes

    20. What stereotypes does this cartoon reinforce? Gender Stereotypes

    21. Masculinity and Femininity • Ideal cluster of traits that society attributes to each gender • Changes with society, and varies from culture to culture • Less gender role stereotyping in African Americans and Northern U.S.

    22. Gender Role Theory • A variety of theorists and positions • Evolutionary biology: gender differences are due to adapting to our environment • Social learning: learn gender roles from society, our environment • Cognitive development: universal stages for understanding and utilizing gender

    23. Gender Role Theory • Gender schema: cognitive structures organize “gender,” influenced by culture • Gender hierarchy: men are the standard and their traits are valued more by society • Chodorow’s developmental: psychoanalytic background; boys separate from mom by devaluing females; girls can love mom as a heterosexual and idealize father’s qualities

    24. Gender Role Theory • Ortner’s culture/nature: masculinity is associated with culture, femininity with nature; culture encompasses nature • MacKinnon’s dominance: men use gender to dominate; it is not a biological or social issue

    25. Varieties of Gender • Sex typing – thought processes that split the world into female and male categories • Greatly influences our thoughts and behaviors • Masculinity and femininity are independent traits

    26. Masculinity: The Hunter • Rights of passage in many societies • Contradictions in the male role: • Provide, but don’t solely focus on career • Be sexually successful, but not degrading to women • Be strong and stable, but be emotionally available • Do not be dependent on a woman • Men have a less flexible role than women

    27. Femininity: The Nurturer • Typically viewed as the opposite of masculinity • Characterized by beauty, empathy, concern, softness, modesty • Contradictions in the female role: • Job fulfillment, but stay at home with kids • Not just for looks, but use makeup/be thin • Opportunities are available, on men’s terms

    28. Androgyny: Feminine and Masculine • Rate high in femininity and masculinity • Flexibility in behaviors • This concept may be reinforcing gender roles

    29. Transgenderism: Living as the Other Sex • 10-15% of the population • Live the other gender’s role, full/part-time • Happy as their biological sex, but psychosocially pleasured dressing as the other sex • Relaxing and peaceful to cross-dress • Billy Tipton

    30. Billy Tipton was a well-known jazz musician who was discovered to be a female when he died in 1989.

    31. Transsexualism: When Gender and Biology Don’t Agree • Feel their gender identity does not match their biological sex (Gender Dysphoria) • “Trapped” in the wrong body • More males than females experience this • Sex reassignment surgery involves a long process: psychological counseling, live as the other sex, hormones, multiple surgeries • M2F: realistic results, orgasm • F2M: experimental stages

    32. Third Genders: Other Cultures, Other Options • Some cultures have a third gender category • Native American berdache • Oman xanˉýth • Indian hijra • Thai kathoey • Hawaiian aikane • Tahitian mahu

    33. Asexualism: The Genetics but Not the Sex • Born without any sexual organs (no biological gender) • Has a genetic gender (XX or XY) • Typically assigned gender as a child and given hormones

    34. Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Senior Years Gender Role Socialization Across the Lifespan

    35. Childhood: Learning by Playing • Children are greatly defined by their gender • Name, clothing, decorations, toys • Treatment by parents, teachers, others • Model behavior of same gender individuals • Rewarded for stereotypical behavior, punished for nonstereotypical behavior (especially boys) • Homosocial play beginning 2½ to 3 years old

    36. Adolescence: Practice Being Female or Male • Trying roles to determine what it is to be a man or woman • Difficult time for transgendered, homosexual, bisexual youth

    37. Adulthood: Careers and Families • “Breadwinner” is a prized part of being male • Women pursue careers out of desire and necessity, yet hold primary responsibility for home life – more than men with the same occupation

    38. Women and Family Life • Primary satisfaction/identity should be as wife and mother • Modern thought also insists on a career outside of the home • Often feel guilt for not adequately meeting both demands

    39. Men and Family Life • Fathers spend less time with their infants than mothers • Stay-at-home dads are becoming more common, but social pressure suggests they should be in the work force and labels them as “unemployed”

    40. The Senior Years • Female with typical wife/mother role may experience “empty nest syndrome” • Adjustment required at retirement if a large part of identity was related to work • More relaxed gender roles