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Rural Extension. Lecture Three Millennium Development goals MDGs. Millennium Development Goals MDGs.

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rural extension

Rural Extension

Lecture Three

Millennium Development goals


millennium development goals mdgs
Millennium Development GoalsMDGs
  • The aim of the MDGs is to encourage development by improving social and economic conditions in the world's poorest countries. They derive from earlier international development targets, and were officially established following the Millennium Summit in 2000, where all world leaders in attendance adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration

The MDGs originated from the Millennium Declaration produced by the United Nations. The Declaration asserts that every individual has the right to dignity, freedom, equality, a basic standard of living that includes freedom from hunger and violence, and encourages tolerance and solidarity.The MDGs were made to operationalize these ideas by setting targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration on a set fifteen-year timeline


The MDG focus on three major areas: of valorizing human capital, improving infrastructure, and increasing social, economic and political rights, with the majority of the focus going towards increasing basic standards of living.The objectives chosen within the human capital focus include improving nutrition, healthcare (including reducing levels of child mortality, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, and increasing reproductive health), and education


. For the infrastructure focus, the objectives include improving infrastructure through increasing access to safe drinking water, energy and modern information/communication technology; amplifying farm outputs through sustainable practices; improving transportation infrastructure; and preserving the environment


Lastly, for the social, economic and political rights focus, the objectives include empowering women, reducing violence, increasing political voice, ensuring equal access to public services, and increasing security of property rights. The goals chosen were intended to increase an individual’s human capabilities and "advance the means to a productive life


The MDGs also emphasize the role of developed countries in aiding developing countries, as outlined in Goal Eight. Goal Eight sets objectives and targets for developed countries to achieve a "global partnership for development" by supporting fair trade, debt relief for developing nations, increasing aid and access to affordable essential medicines, and encouraging technology transfer.


. Thus developing nations are not seen as left to achieve the MDGs on their own, but as a partner in the developing-developed compact to reduce world poverty

  • There are eight goals with 21 targets,and a series of measurable indicators for each target
  • Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Target 1A: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day
    • Proportion of population below $1 per day (PPP values)
    • Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]
    • Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 1B: Achieve Decent Employment for Women, Men, and Young People

    • GDP Growth per Employed Person
    • Employment Rate
    • Proportion of employed population below $1 per day (PPP values)
    • Proportion of family-based workers in employed population

Target 1C: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    • Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age
  • Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption[12]

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

  • Target 2A: By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys
    • Enrollment in primary education
  • Completion of primary education

] Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

  • Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
    • Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education
    • Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
    • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament[
    • For girls in some regions, education remains elusive[15]
    • Poverty is a major barrier to education, especially among older girls[15]

In every developing region except the CIS, men outnumber women in paid employment[15]

    • Women are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employment[15]
    • Women are over-represented in informal employment, with its lack of benefits and security[15]
    • Top-level jobs still go to men — to an overwhelming degree[15]
  • Women are slowly rising to political power, but mainly when boosted by quotas and other special measures

Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

    • Under-five mortality rate
    • Infant (under 1) mortality rate
  • Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

  • Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    • Maternal mortality ratio
    • Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
  • Target 5B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
    • Contraceptive prevalence rate
    • Adolescent birth rate
    • Antenatal care coverage
    • Unmet need for family planning[17]

6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

  • Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    • HIV prevalence among population aged 15–24 years
    • Condom use at last high-risk sex
    • Proportion of population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
  • Target 6B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it
    • Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs

Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

    • Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
    • Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets
    • Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs
    • Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
  • Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course)

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

  • Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources
  • Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
    • Proportion of land area covered by forest
    • CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)
    • Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
    • Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
    • Proportion of total water resources used
    • Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
    • Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 7C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

    • Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural
    • Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation

Target 7D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers

  • Proportion of urban population living in slums

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

  • Target 8A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
    • Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally

Target 8B: Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)

    • Includes: tariff and quota free access for LDC exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA (Official Development Assistance) for countries committed to poverty reduction

Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

    • Through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly

Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

mdgs insudan
MDGs inSudan
  • The MDGs were reflected in Sudan’s Interim Constitution as well as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) as a prerequisite to achieve stability in Sudan. The National Long-term Strategic Plan which spanned the 25 year period (2007-2031) has also made strong references and commitments to the MDGs.

The new Five Year Development Plan (2012-2016) being finalized and its predecessor (2007-2011) have also made strong reference to the achievements of the MDGs in Sudan. Achieving MDGs in Sudan is set as a challenge in the Socio-cultural section of the new Five Year Development Plan (Sudan MDGs Report, 2011).

mdgs in sudan
MDGs in Sudan
  • MDG 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and HungerThe incidence of poverty in Sudan stood at 46.5%. The poverty gap ratio and the poverty severity index stood at 16.2% and 7.8% %, respectively. This signifies how deep and severe poverty is in Sudan. • The incidence of poverty ranges from a little over a quarter of the population in the capital (Khartoum) to more than two thirds of the population in Northern Darfur.• About 44.8% of the population of Sudan are consuming below food poverty line of 69 SDG per month. Food poverty index is higher in rural (55%) than urban areas (28%).

The nutrition situation in Sudan is poor, characterized by high levels of underweight and chronic malnutrition, as well as persistently elevated levels of acute malnutrition. Nationally, one third (32.2%) of children under the age of five years in Sudan is moderately or severely underweight


MDG 2 Achieve Universal Primary EducationThe net primary school enrolment rate for the population 6-13 years old in Sudan is 67%. • There is a significant difference between urban and rural population for net primary school enrolment with rates 82% and 60% respectively. Highest net primary school enrolment rate per state is 85 in Khartoum. Kassala and Western Darfur are the states with the lowest net primary school enrolment rates with 48% and 54% respectively.• The net secondary school enrolment rate for the population 14-16 years old in Sudan is 22%.


• For the urban population, the net secondary enrolment rate is 37% compared to the rural population rate of 14%. The highest net secondary enrolment rates per state were reported in River Nile and Khartoum States with 41% and 37% respectively.• The lowest net are in Southern Kordofan and Kassala States with rates 9% and 11% respectively.• 62% of the population 15 years old or more in Sudan is literate. Urban literacy reached 79% of the population in this age group compared to 51% of the rural population. •


The range of the literacy rate spans from 81% in Khartoum State to 44% and 46% in Western Darfur and Kassala States respectively. • The literacy gender gap ratio for the population 15 years and above is 0.71 with 73% of the male population literate compared to 52 percent of the females.


MDG 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenThe net primary school enrolment rate for the population 6-13 years old in Sudan was 69% for males and 64% females. For secondary education it was 21% males and 23% females.• In terms of labor force participation, males constitute 38.3% while the share of females stood at 14.1%. According to the available recent data, unemployment among men stood at 13 % compared to 20% for women.•


Women occupy 28% of the seats in the newly elected parliament in 2010. Accordingly, proportion of women in the national legislative council increased from 10% in 2004 to 25% in the recently elected assembly.


MDG 4 Reduce Child MortalityPneumonia, malaria, diarrhea, and malnutrition usually still represent the major causes of under-five illness and deaths.• Under five Mortality Rate in Sudan was estimated at 130/1000 L.B in mid 1990s, it declined to 102/1000 L.B in 2006 (SHHS 2006), and finally stood at 78/1000 L.B in 2010 (SHHS 2010) • The proportion of mothers who breast feed their newborns has increased from 37% in 2006 to 40% in 2010


MDG 5 Improve Maternal HealthThe most recent survey (SHHS 2010) estimated maternal mortality rate (216/100.000 LB) at national level (225/100,000 rural and 194/100,000 urban). • Delivery by trained personnel in Sudan stood at 72% (89% urban & 66 rural) in 2010 compared with 57% in 2006. •


Contraceptive prevalence rate is very low in Sudan. The most recent survey shows that only 9% of currently married women are using any form of contraceptive.• The total fertility rate was estimated at 5.6 in 2010 SHHS while it was 5.1 births per woman (SHHS 2006) with marked differences between urban and rural areas


MDG 6 Combat HIV Aids, Malaria and other diseases

  • The estimated HIV prevalence among the general population 15-49 years in North Sudan is 0.67%.• The average HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) is 0.19%• Only 4% of the respondents knew all the three ways to prevent HIV transmission in Sudan.• Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan.• Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan. Symptomatic malaria accounts for 17.5 of out-patients clinic visits and approximately 11% of hospital admissions

• All states except Blue Nile (12.5%) and West Darfur (7.1%) reported prevalence of less than 3%.• In Sudan, the percentage of households with at least one Insecticide Treated Net (ITNs) stood at 41%.• Prevalence of all forms of TB in Sudan is 120 per 100,000 population or 37073 cases and the actual detected were 22,097 (59.6%)• The actual detected were 8572 cases. This means a case detection rate of 46.2%.


MDG 7 Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs reverse loss of environmental resources According to SHHS 2010, almost 60.1% of the households in Sudan have access to improved drinking water sources (66.6% in urban and 57.7% in rural areas). Wealth index disaggregation also showed that only 61.5% of the poorest have access to improved drinking water compared to 92.8% among the richest. State disparities were also present; it reached 91% in Northern state, followed by Gazira and Khartoum states at 79.2% and 72.9% respectively. The lowest access was reported in Red Sea (27.4%). •


According to SHHS 2010, shares of 27.1% of the households in Sudan have access to improved sanitation (46.9% in urban and 17.9% in rural areas). Wealth index disaggregation also showed that only 2% of the poorest have access to improved drinking water compared to 69.8% among the richest. State disparities were also present; it reached 73.5% in Northern state, followed by Khartoum states at 51.3%. The lowest access was reported in Blue Nile (5.3%).