Rural Extension. Lecture Three Millennium Development goals MDGs. Millennium Development Goals MDGs.
Millennium Development goals
The MDGs originated from the Millennium Declaration produced by the United Nations. The Declaration asserts that every individual has the right to dignity, freedom, equality, a basic standard of living that includes freedom from hunger and violence, and encourages tolerance and solidarity.The MDGs were made to operationalize these ideas by setting targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration on a set fifteen-year timeline
The MDG focus on three major areas: of valorizing human capital, improving infrastructure, and increasing social, economic and political rights, with the majority of the focus going towards increasing basic standards of living.The objectives chosen within the human capital focus include improving nutrition, healthcare (including reducing levels of child mortality, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, and increasing reproductive health), and education
. For the infrastructure focus, the objectives include improving infrastructure through increasing access to safe drinking water, energy and modern information/communication technology; amplifying farm outputs through sustainable practices; improving transportation infrastructure; and preserving the environment
Lastly, for the social, economic and political rights focus, the objectives include empowering women, reducing violence, increasing political voice, ensuring equal access to public services, and increasing security of property rights. The goals chosen were intended to increase an individual’s human capabilities and "advance the means to a productive life
The MDGs also emphasize the role of developed countries in aiding developing countries, as outlined in Goal Eight. Goal Eight sets objectives and targets for developed countries to achieve a "global partnership for development" by supporting fair trade, debt relief for developing nations, increasing aid and access to affordable essential medicines, and encouraging technology transfer.
. Thus developing nations are not seen as left to achieve the MDGs on their own, but as a partner in the developing-developed compact to reduce world poverty
In every developing region except the CIS, men outnumber women in paid employment
Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
Target 7C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
Target 7D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers
Target 8B: Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
The new Five Year Development Plan (2012-2016) being finalized and its predecessor (2007-2011) have also made strong reference to the achievements of the MDGs in Sudan. Achieving MDGs in Sudan is set as a challenge in the Socio-cultural section of the new Five Year Development Plan (Sudan MDGs Report, 2011).
The nutrition situation in Sudan is poor, characterized by high levels of underweight and chronic malnutrition, as well as persistently elevated levels of acute malnutrition. Nationally, one third (32.2%) of children under the age of five years in Sudan is moderately or severely underweight
MDG 2 Achieve Universal Primary EducationThe net primary school enrolment rate for the population 6-13 years old in Sudan is 67%. • There is a significant difference between urban and rural population for net primary school enrolment with rates 82% and 60% respectively. Highest net primary school enrolment rate per state is 85 in Khartoum. Kassala and Western Darfur are the states with the lowest net primary school enrolment rates with 48% and 54% respectively.• The net secondary school enrolment rate for the population 14-16 years old in Sudan is 22%.
• For the urban population, the net secondary enrolment rate is 37% compared to the rural population rate of 14%. The highest net secondary enrolment rates per state were reported in River Nile and Khartoum States with 41% and 37% respectively.• The lowest net are in Southern Kordofan and Kassala States with rates 9% and 11% respectively.• 62% of the population 15 years old or more in Sudan is literate. Urban literacy reached 79% of the population in this age group compared to 51% of the rural population. •
The range of the literacy rate spans from 81% in Khartoum State to 44% and 46% in Western Darfur and Kassala States respectively. • The literacy gender gap ratio for the population 15 years and above is 0.71 with 73% of the male population literate compared to 52 percent of the females.
MDG 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenThe net primary school enrolment rate for the population 6-13 years old in Sudan was 69% for males and 64% females. For secondary education it was 21% males and 23% females.• In terms of labor force participation, males constitute 38.3% while the share of females stood at 14.1%. According to the available recent data, unemployment among men stood at 13 % compared to 20% for women.•
Women occupy 28% of the seats in the newly elected parliament in 2010. Accordingly, proportion of women in the national legislative council increased from 10% in 2004 to 25% in the recently elected assembly.
MDG 4 Reduce Child MortalityPneumonia, malaria, diarrhea, and malnutrition usually still represent the major causes of under-five illness and deaths.• Under five Mortality Rate in Sudan was estimated at 130/1000 L.B in mid 1990s, it declined to 102/1000 L.B in 2006 (SHHS 2006), and finally stood at 78/1000 L.B in 2010 (SHHS 2010) • The proportion of mothers who breast feed their newborns has increased from 37% in 2006 to 40% in 2010
MDG 5 Improve Maternal HealthThe most recent survey (SHHS 2010) estimated maternal mortality rate (216/100.000 LB) at national level (225/100,000 rural and 194/100,000 urban). • Delivery by trained personnel in Sudan stood at 72% (89% urban & 66 rural) in 2010 compared with 57% in 2006. •
Contraceptive prevalence rate is very low in Sudan. The most recent survey shows that only 9% of currently married women are using any form of contraceptive.• The total fertility rate was estimated at 5.6 in 2010 SHHS while it was 5.1 births per woman (SHHS 2006) with marked differences between urban and rural areas
• All states except Blue Nile (12.5%) and West Darfur (7.1%) reported prevalence of less than 3%.• In Sudan, the percentage of households with at least one Insecticide Treated Net (ITNs) stood at 41%.• Prevalence of all forms of TB in Sudan is 120 per 100,000 population or 37073 cases and the actual detected were 22,097 (59.6%)• The actual detected were 8572 cases. This means a case detection rate of 46.2%.
MDG 7 Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs reverse loss of environmental resources According to SHHS 2010, almost 60.1% of the households in Sudan have access to improved drinking water sources (66.6% in urban and 57.7% in rural areas). Wealth index disaggregation also showed that only 61.5% of the poorest have access to improved drinking water compared to 92.8% among the richest. State disparities were also present; it reached 91% in Northern state, followed by Gazira and Khartoum states at 79.2% and 72.9% respectively. The lowest access was reported in Red Sea (27.4%). •
According to SHHS 2010, shares of 27.1% of the households in Sudan have access to improved sanitation (46.9% in urban and 17.9% in rural areas). Wealth index disaggregation also showed that only 2% of the poorest have access to improved drinking water compared to 69.8% among the richest. State disparities were also present; it reached 73.5% in Northern state, followed by Khartoum states at 51.3%. The lowest access was reported in Blue Nile (5.3%).