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Language . Speaking. Listening. Reading. Writing. Media. Literary. Informational. Fiction. Expository. Procedural. Persuasive. Nonfiction. Nonfiction. Literary Elements. Important parts of stories. Plot diagram model/story map. Denouement/. WHETHER AND HOW CONFLICTS ARE RESOLVED

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speaking

Language

Speaking

Listening

Reading

Writing

Media

Literary

Informational

Fiction

Expository

Procedural

Persuasive

Nonfiction

Nonfiction

literary elements

Literary Elements

Important parts of stories

slide4

WHETHER AND HOW CONFLICTS ARE RESOLVED

  • Possible examples of conflict resolution:
  • Everybody wins
  • Fight/run away/avoid
  • Fight/resist
  • Death
  • Compromise
  • Someone wins: someone loses
  • Acceptance
  • Unresolved
setting
Setting:
  • Time - When is the story taking place?
  • Place – Where is the story taking place?
  • Environment – What does it feel like? (e.g., weather, mood, social conditions)
  • Culture - What cultural influences are part of the setting? (e.g., geographic region, race, religion, etc.)
  • Historical background - What historical influences are part of the setting? (e.g., historical events, movements, time periods, etc.)
plot continued
Plot continued
  • Setting: When and where a story takes place.
  • Suspense: Building tension in a story. You wonder, “What will happen next?”
  • Flashback: When a story is interrupted and we go back in time.
  • Dialogue: What is said between characters in a story. There are “quotation marks.”
  • Theme: The message that an author wants you to know about life, nature or society after reading the story. NOT THE MAIN IDEA!!!
  • Foreshadow: When the author gives clues about an event that may take place in the future.
  • Symbolism: Using an object to represent another idea. Example: a dove represents peace. A heart represents love.
characters
Characters
  • Characters:
    • The people or animals in a story.
      • Antagonist: The character causing the problems in the story.
      • Protagonist: Main Character in the story
      • Traits: How you describe a character.- physical emotional , intellectual
      • Motivations: What causes a character to act or speak in a certain manner.
conflict
Conflict
  • Conflict:
      • Problem: What is wrong,. What needs to be solved.
      • Solution/Resolution:How the problem/conflict is solved.
  • 4 main types of conflict:
      • Character vs. self – The character must make a decision.
      • Character vs. character – The character has a problem with another character.
      • Character vs. nature – The character must overcome a natural disaster.
      • Character vs. society – The character has ideas different to society. School rules
point of view
Point of View
  • Point of view: How the story is being told.
  • First person: The narrator is a character in the story. Use “I”, “me” , we, “my.” etc.
  • Second Person: Use of “You” giving of directions (Speeches)
  • Third person: The narrator is NOT a character in the story. Use characters’ names, he, she they, etc.. Reporting
advantages
Advantages
  • Advantages of first person point of view:
  • •Credibility –
  • First-hand experience is more believable.
  • It is far more natural for a character to reveal her own thoughts.
  • Intimacy - the “I” narrator seems to address the reader directly from the heart, sharing his personal observations and insights with an interested listener.
disadvantages of first person point of view
Disadvantages of first-person point of view:
  • •The reader can see, hear, and know only what the narrator sees, hears, and knows.
third person all knowing
Third Person/All Knowing
  • Third person/omniscient - the narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The narrator knows everything about all the characters.
  • Third person/limited - the narrator restricts his or her knowledge to one character’s view or behavior
slide13

Advantage of third-person omniscient:

  • •Obvious freedom and unlimited scope
  • Disadvantage of third-person omniscient:
  • •Relative loss of involvement and intimacy
slide14

Advantage of third-person limited:

  • •Encourages personal connections to one character
  • Disadvantage of third-person limited:
  • •Surrenders the privileges of seeing and knowing everything and typically follows one character throughout the story, presenting only those incidents in which the character is involved
  • •The reader’s perception of other characters is colored by the narrator’s predispositions, prejudices, and personal limitations
third person
Third Person
  • Subjective - perspective is restricted to one character including their inner thoughts and feelings
  • Objective - the narrator reveals only the actions and words without the benefit of the inner thoughts and feelings
culture custom
Culture/Custom
  • -activities, ideas, beliefs, values, attitudes, behavior, dress, and language of a particular group of people
  • Culture determines what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong.
values
Values
  • Important and lasting beliefs shared by the members of a group of people about what is good or desirable and what is not.
  • Values influence behavior of an individual.
beliefs
Beliefs
  • What you think to be true about concepts, events, people, and things.
sensory imagery
Sensory Imagery
  • This is a technique used by writers that involve the 5 senses. I
  • See
  • Hear
  • Taste
  • Touch
  • Smell

It draws the reader in and helps the reader a participate in the experience.

words that tell sight
Words that tell. Sight
  • What would you see ?
  • What would it look like?

Examples: old, frail, sunny, shy, hysterical,

healthy, broken, fresh, tall, round,

words that tell sound
Words that tell…Sound
  • What would you hear ?
  • What does it sound like?

Examples: shout, thud, whistle, clatter

words that tell taste
Words that tell…Taste
  • What would you taste ?
  • What does it taste like?

Examples: sweet, burnt, buttery, salty, warm, crisp, tangy

words that tell touch feeling
Words that tell…Touch/Feeling
          • What does it feel like?
  • How does it feel?

Examples: sharp, smooth,

tickly, warm, fuzzy, dry

words that tell smell
Words that tell…Smell
          • How does it smell?
  • What does it smell like?

Examples: musty, fresh, spicy, piney

now see how many examples of sensory imagery you can find
Now, see how many examples of Sensory Imagery you can find.

“ Walls of thick vegetation rose up on all sides and arched overhead in a lacy canopy that filtered the light to a soft shade. It had just rained; the air was hot and steamy. I felt enclosed in a semitropical terrarium, sealed off from a world that suddenly seemed a thousand miles away.”

- From Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil

by John Berendt

the most dangerous game by richard connell
"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell

"He leaped upon the rail and balanced himself

there, to get greater elevation; his pipe, striking a

rope, was knocked from his mouth. He lunged for

it; a short, hoarse cry came from his lips as he realized he had reached too far and had lost his balance. The cry was pinched off short as the blood-warm waters of the Caribbean Sea closed over his head.

"He struggled up to the surface and tried

to cry out, but the wash from the speeding yacht slapped him in the face and the salt water in his open mouth made him gag “

slide27

Example of a Setting:

  • Crunch! Crunch! Crunch! Joe’s boots broke the forest’s silence.
  • A full moon peeked out from behind two clouds.
  • Tree shadows licked the snow drifts in its shimmering light.
  • Joe shivered as a cold gust of wind blew through his jacket.
slide29
Myth
  • Myth –Stories that were created to explain a belief or natural happening that people could not understand.
  • These stories included Gods and Goddesses.
fable
Fable:
  • Fable – a brief story or poem that teaches a moral or lesson usually through animal characters.
once upon a time
Once Upon A Time…
  • Legend – a widely told story about the past that may or may not have any truth to it.
  • Fairy tale - a story about fairies or other mythical or magical beings.
  • Folk tale – a story originated by people that could not read or write and passed from person to person by word of mouth.
slide32

Oral tradition – the passing of songs, stories, and poems from generation to generation by word of mouth and their origin is not known

there is no worse death than the end of hope king arthu r
“There is no worse death than the end of hope” – King Arthur
  • Hero/Heroine – characters that struggle to overcome obstacles and problems; and whose actions are inspiring or noble.
the face that launched a thousand ships
The face that launched a thousand ships
  • Epic - a long poem from ancient oral tradition, telling about the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary characters.
autobiography true account nonfiction written by the author

Autobiographytrue account-nonfictionwritten by the author

Biography

true account-nonfiction written by someone else others thoughts and feelings about the person

autobiography
Autobiography
  • Purpose

To tell my story

Ist Point-of-view

writer’s thoughts and feelings

Perception

How I want people to see me.

Me

  • Author
  • Me
b iography
Biography
  • Purpose

To tell my story

  • Author

someone else

3rd Point-of-view

Others thoughts and feelings

Perception

How others see me

Me

speaking1

Language

Speaking

Reading

Listening

Writing

Literary

Informational

Fiction

Nonfiction

Expository

Procedural

Persuasive

external features
External Features
  • Using the Table of Contents to locate main topics
  • Utilizing the Glossary to identify the unknown
  • Making use of Headings and Subheadings to locate information
  • Analyzing Graphic Features to support meaning
  • Using the Index to navigate text
  • Finding useful information in Captions and Footnotes
internal features textual organizations patterns
Internal Features Textual organizations/patterns
  • main idea/details
  • cause/effect,
  • compare/contrast,
  • problem/solution,
  • chronological order, sequence
main idea details
Main Idea/ details
  • detail
  • Detail detail

detail

Main Idea

persuasive techniques
Persuasive Techniques
  • Methods a writer uses to make an audience think a certain way.
  • It appeals to:
    • Reason
    • Emotions
    • Respect for expert opinion
factual claims
Factual Claims
  • Can prove with evidence.
aphorisms proverbs
Aphorisms/proverbs
  • A statement of a general truth or principle
  • • • A winner never quits—a quitter never wins.
  • • • Failure to prepare is preparing to fail.
epigraphs
Epigraphs
  • •Epigraph - a quotation at the beginning of a literary work to introduce its theme.
loaded terms
Loaded Terms
  • Appealing to someone’s emotions. Making them happy, scared, sad, worried, excited, etc.
  • Examples: St. Jude commercials, SPCA commercials
logical fallacy
Logical Fallacy
  • Persuasive techniques used to deceive.
you can try to persuade someone by making your argument ambiguous
You can try to persuade someone by making your argument ambiguous
  • Unclear, open to many opinions.
  • You are not very specific
you can also try to persuade someone by using extraneous information
You can also try to persuade someone by using extraneous information.
  • Including information that is extra or unimportant.
bandwagon
Bandwagon
  • Doing something because everyone else is doing it.
  • Examples: Celebrity endorsements
false assumptions
False Assumptions
  • Flawed ideas that the reader creates when ideas are put together by inferring and not knowing the whole truth.
incorrect premise
Incorrect Premise
  • A faulty idea that is used as the foundation of an argument.
caricature
Caricature
  • A distortion of characteristics or defects of a person or object with words or pictures.
  • Example:
leading question
Leading Question
  • A question that leads to a specific/obvious answer.
  • Example: “Are you tired of always having dirty stains on your clothes that you can’t get out?”
media
Media
  • Message
  • Medium
what is a drama
What is a drama?
  • A drama/play is a story written to be performed by actors.
how is a drama organized
How is a drama organized?
  • A drama is very similar to story plot.
  • Remember our plot diagram?
script
Script
  • written form of a play
scripts
Scripts
  • Screenplays : scripts written for films
  • Teleplays: scripts written for television
  • Radio plays: scripts written for radio
playwright
Playwright
  • the author of the play
differences
Differences

Fiction Text

Drama

The viewer can draw conclusions on how someone acts based on what other characters say.

Elements of staging (props, costumes, body language, and facial expressions) allow the viewer to understand a character.

  • The author writes specific character traits that tell the reader about the characters.
  • The reader must draw conclusions based on how someone acts in order to learn about them.
dialogue
Dialogue
  • A conversation between two characters in written or spoken form.
  • In a poem or novel quotation marks
  • In a play dialogue is written in the script form and no quotations marks are used.
monologue
Monologue
  • A long uninterrupted speech that is spoken by a single character and reveals his or her thoughts and feelings
slide71

Narrator: the person who tells the story to the audience.

  • Audience: the intended reader or viewer
slide72
Act: is a part of a drama.

Many acts make up a play/drama.

Scene: is a part of an act.

Many scenes make an act.

staging
Staging
  • Staging reveals the setting, time, and place (through on stage props and costumes) of the play.
  • Staging helps the playwright establish the mood.
slide74
Off stage:   action taking place in the area of a stage that is invisible to the audience

On stage: The opposite of off stage. Taking place in a public setting.

stage directions
Stage Directions
  • tell actors how to move and speak.
  • Most stage directions are in parentheses ( ) or in italics (words that are slanted). They can also tell you where the play is taking place.
stage set
Stage set
  • Describes how the stage should look
  • Gives the audience and idea of where the play takes place.
slide77
Set

On stage scenery that suggest time and place of action

body language
Body Language: 
  • communicating nonverbally through conscious or unconscious gestures, movements, and facial expressions
costume
Costume
  • A style of dress, accessories, and hairstyle, especially for what is used in a particular country, time period, etc.
types of drama
Types of Drama
  • Melodrama: Exaggerates plot and characters in order to appeal to the emotions
  • Comedy: Characters in funny situations
  • Most of them have happy endings.
  • Tragedy: Based on human suffering or death
  • Often it is the protagonist.
slide81

Visual technique

  • Sound technique
  • Lighting
sound techniques
Sound Techniques
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?annotation_id=annotation_48470&feature=iv&src_vid=oti-rVv52ls&v=UyHuXley8-0
  • What emotions are evoked by these sounds?
inference
Inference
  • A logical assumption about ideas the writer suggests
  • An assumption based on what the author tells you and what you already know
  • A way of reading between the lines
    • Connecting characters actions to outcomes
    • Connecting events to outcomes
    • Connecting to your own experiences and ideas.
author
Author
  • Poet
lyrical poem
Lyrical Poem
  • Expresses thoughts and feelings of a single speaker
  • Often in musical verse
epic poem
Epic Poem
  • A long, narrative poem that tells an exciting or inspiring story.
  • It focuses on heroic deeds and major events to a culture or nation.
narrative poem
Narrative Poem
  • A poem that tells a story.
free verse
Free Verse
  • A type of poetry that has no real pattern to it.
  • It has no rhyme scheme, no form, no set line or stanza length.
concrete poem
Concrete Poem

Shape of the poem suggests its subject.

Lines create an image on the page.

imagery sensory detail
Imagery/sensory detail
  • Writing or Speech that appeals to one or more of the five senses – sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch.
  • Her slippered feet softly measures
  • The tatami floor with even step
extended metaphor
Extended Metaphor
  • The comparison is used throughout the entire text.
hyperbole
Hyperbole
  • Exaggeration or overstatement
  • --Used for Comic effect
  • ---Express heightened emotion
  • It is so hot outside that you could fry an egg on the sidewalk.
alliteration
Alliteration
  • Repetition of initial consonant sound
  • Creates musical effect
  • Draws attention to the words
  • The blue bonnet looked beautiful on her baby’s head.
diction
Diction
  • Writers or speakers word choice
  • It is part of the writer’s style.
oxymoron
Oxymoron
  • Is a figure of speech that links two opposite words that seem unrelated but is somehow true.
  • Eyes wide shut
  • Pretty ugly
  • Deafening silence
idioms
Idioms
  • Expressions that cannot be understood by the literal words that are seen.
  • Hidden meaning according to culture
elements of poetry1
ELEMENTS OF POETRY

Sound devices – add a musical quality to poetry

rhyme
Rhyme
  • Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. It is not what you see but what is heard.
  • Example: stamp lamp camp
  • blue shoe

plate eight

doctor admirer, pleasure scholar

journal entry
Journal Entry
  • How will the knowledge of poetic terms aid your understanding of poems?
rhyme scheme
Rhyme Scheme
  • A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).
  • Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)
  • A,A,B,B,C,C
find the rhyme scheme
Find the Rhyme Scheme…
  • The Germ by Ogden Nash
  • A mighty creature is the germ,
  • Though smaller than the pachyderm.
  • His customary dwelling place
  • Is deep within the human race.
  • His childish pride he often pleases
  • By giving people strange diseases.
  • Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?
  • You probably contain a germ.
internal rhyme
Internal Rhyme
  • Rhyme occurs within single line
  • “In mist for cloud, on mast or shroud”
meter
Meter

The basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables. The beat.

lines stanza verse
Lines Stanza/Verse
  • A group of lines in a poem.
  • Similar to a paragraph.
  • Example:
  • A word is dead
  • When it is said,
  • Some say.
  • I say it just
  • Begins to live
  • That day.
  • Group of words like a sentence.
  • Usually begins with a capital letter
repetition
Repetition
  • A word or phrase is repeated more than just once in one specific area of the poem.
  • Oh, her eyes, her eyes, make the stars look like they're not shiningHer hair, her hair, falls perfectly without her trying She's so beautiful, and I tell her every day
refrain
Refrain
  • When a poem repeats a phrase over and over. Like the chorus of a song.
  • You see you had a lot of crooks try to steal your heartNever really had luck, couldn’t ever figure outHow to loveHow to loveSee you had a lot of moments that didn’t last foreverNow you in this corner tryna put it togetherHow to loveHow to love
graphic elements
Graphic Elements
  • When a poet puts emphasis on some words by capitalizing, having extra spacing, or bolding a word.
  • I am the only ME I AMwho qualifies as me;no ME I AM has been before,and none will ever be.
slide112

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slide113

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to Inform

to Persuade

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slide114

Laura Elizabeth Ingalls Wilder was born on February 7, 1867 in Pepin, Wisconsin to Charles and Caroline Ingalls. She met and married Almanzo James Wilder in 1885. She published many books based on her travels to the west. Her writing became the basis for the " Little House" series She died in 1957.

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to Entertain

slide115

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slide116

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to Inform

to Persuade

to Entertain

slide117

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