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A.D.H.D. & A.D.D. A neurobehavioural disorder that has been related to the brain’s chemistry and anatomy.

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A neurobehavioural disorder that has been related to the brain’s chemistry and anatomy.

  • ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity that occurs more frequently and more severely than is typically seen in people at comparable levels of development.

Symptoms must occur for at least six months and some symptoms have been present since before the age of 7 years.

  • ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms can persist into adulthood as well. While some children outgrow ADHD, as many as 60% continue to have features of ADHD persisting into adulthood.
recognizing the symptoms
Recognizing the Symptoms
  • Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) are divided into categories: inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity.
  • A diagnosis of ADHD is based on the number, persistence, and history of ADHD behaviours, and the degree to which they interfere with a child’s performance in more than one setting.

A child may be exhibiting ADHD symptoms of inattention if he or she often:

  • Ignores details; makes careless mistakes
  • Has trouble sustaining attention in work or play
  • Does not seem to listen when directly addressed
  • Does not follow through on instructions; fails to finish
  • Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  • Avoids activities that require a sustained mental effort
  • Loses things he or she needs
  • Is forgetful in daily activities
  • Is easily distracted
  • A child may be exhibiting symptoms of hyperactivity if he or she often:
  • Fidgets or squirms
  • Has to get up from seat
  • Runs or climbs when he or she shouldn't
  • Has difficulty with quiet leisure activities
  • Is on the go, as if driven by a motor
  • Talks excessively

A child may be exhibiting ADHD symptoms of impulsivity if he or she often:

  • Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
  • Has difficulty waiting his or her turn
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others
causes of adhd
Causes of ADHD
  • Although the exact cause of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unknown it has become increasingly clear that ADHD has a biological component and requires early diagnosis and intervention.

There is evidence that ADHD appears to have a hereditary component, the result of genetics. A number of unproven causes have been suggested over the years but most of these have been shown to be false.

  • Research has shown that ADHD runs in families. One study suggests, if a parent has ADHD, there is a 57% chance his/her children will also have ADHD. In addition, about 32% of siblings of children with ADHD will also have the disorder.
  • In addition to genetic causes, there are other medical factors that can cause ADHD-like symptoms. Careful examination, however, reveals important differences between these disorders and ADHD
adhd myths
ADHD Myths
  • In the past, uncertainty about the causes of ADHD created a fertile climate for speculation of all kinds. Many theories — notably those holding parents to blame in some way for their child's uncontrolled behaviour — have been advanced and were later determined to be unfounded. Among the most well-known myths, are environmental causes such as:
  • Diet (e.g., food additives or sugar)
  • Poor parenting.

The cause is in the Parietal Lobe.


The size and structure of many brain areas differs; especially, a lack of activity in the frontal area (“Hypofrontality”).

This is linked to a deficiency of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine which are involved with arousal and alertness.

main indicators

Problems with attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity


1.Fear; anxiety;

2. Low brain energy leading to a capacity problem; 3.Slow cognitive thinking

4. poor memory retrieval. 5. But the frontal processes are intact so these people rely on logic .

Main Indicators

Rarely impulsive but can appear so when frustrated.

Self-regulation is weak because the control mechanisms of the frontal lobe are not functioning well, e.g. self talk is not used; they are unaware of the consequences to their actions, fast cognitive speed contributes to impulsiveness


Rarely impulsive but can appear so when frustrated.


Cannot maintain focus so have poor sustained effort;

Race from task to task; are easily bored;

Forget and lose things because they missed information due to being distracted;

Need external motivation


This is the primary problem. They cannot sustain attention and concentration because:

a)     low energy which causes loss of focus and follow through

b)     environmental factors

c)      their own racing or wandering thoughts

hyperactivity restlessness

Due to motor activity, not anxiety.

These people crave excitement and stimulation.


Due to anxiety, these people are driven and cannot relax. Daring activities are rare; activities are not for excitement but for relief from constant, wandering, racing thought patterns and anxiety.


Meaningful relationships. However, personal relationships may be difficult and uncertain. Because of egocentricity, poor focus, distractibility, intolerance, etc.


When not talking excessively because of anxiety, these people say little but think a lot; therefore they do not display their thoughts or feelings. They are afraid to express anger or arouse it in others


Vulnerable to criticism to which they react, sometimes angrily.


Shy and fearful of others’ displeasure


Constantly frustrated and crave instant gratification


Do not need instant gratification. These people become impatient only after trying unsuccessfully for a long time at which point they are tired, disheartened and upset

exit slip
Exit Slip

1. What are some of the myths about ADD, and ADHD?

2. Explain how impatience differs between ADD and ADHD.

3. Explain how sensitivity differs when comparing ADD and ADHD.