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Acid Base Equilibria. Chapter 16 part II. Write the Dissociation Reaction for the following:. A. HCl B. Acetic Acid C. Ammonium ion D. C 6 H 5 NH 4 + E. [Al(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+. Answers. A. HCl  H + + Cl- B. HC 2 H 3 O 2  H + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - C. NH 4 +  H + + NH 3

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acid base equilibria

Acid Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 part II

write the dissociation reaction for the following
Write the Dissociation Reaction for the following:
  • A. HCl
  • B. Acetic Acid
  • C. Ammonium ion
  • D. C6H5NH4+
  • E. [Al(H2O)6]3+
answers
Answers
  • A. HCl  H+ + Cl-
  • B. HC2H3O2  H+ + C2H3O2-
  • C. NH4+  H+ + NH3
  • D. C6H5NH4+  H+ + C6H5NH3+
  • E. [Al(H2O)6]3+ H++[Al(H2O)5 OH]2+
  • What about their Ka?
acid strength
Acid Strength
  • Strength is defined by the equilibrium position of its ionization.
  • Strong acids almost completely dissociate.
  • That is because strong acids have WEAK conjugate bases that do not compete effectively for the H+ ion.
weak acids
Weak Acids
  • Weak acids do not completely dissociate.
  • In fact most of a weak acid remains completely intact in solution.
  • The minority of the weak acid ionizes.
  • The reason is that weak acids have STRONG conjugate bases that have high affinity for the proton.
  • The weaker the acid, the stronger the conjugate base.
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Monoprotic acids
  • Have only one proton to donate.
  • They may have more than one hydrogen in the chemical formula, but only one is an acidic hydrogen.
  • HCl
  • HNO3
  • HC2H3O2
diprotic acids
Diprotic Acids
  • These have two acidic hydrogens.
  • H2SO4
  • H2S
  • Triprotic Acids
  • Have three acidic hydrogens.
  • H3PO4
  • H3P
oxyacids
Oxyacids
  • Acids in which the acidic hydrogen is bound to oxygen.
  • H2SO4
  • Organic Acids aka
  • Carboxylic Acids are a type of oxyacid.
oxyacids1
Oxyacids
  • The –COOH group can share the negative charge between two oxygens as a resonance structure. These tend to be weak acids; they do not fully ionize.
what are the strong acids
What are the strong Acids?
  • Hickle
  • Hibber
  • Hi
  • Hicolo
  • HeNo
  • He So Fine
question
Question
  • What is the relative strength of these conjugate bases?
  • Weak: H2O, F-, Cl-, NO2-, CN-
  • Find the Ka and arrange.
  • Ka Acid
  • 7.2 X 10-4 HF
  • 4.0 X 10-4 HNO2
  • 6.2X 10-10 HCN
answer
Answer
  • H2O is a stronger base than the conjugate
  • base of a strong acid.
  • Therefore:
  • Weakest Cl- < H2O < F- < NO2- < CN- strongest
  • How did we pick the others?
  • Read the Ka.
water
Water
  • Is a substance that can act as both an acid and base is called an amphoteric substance.
  • Not only is water an amphoteric substance, it can also auto-ionize.
  • It can ionize with itself to form a hydroxide ion and a hydronium ion.
is water the only compound capable of auto ionization
Is water the only compound capable of auto-ionization?
  • No.
  • In Solution ammonia ionizes to form ammonium and hydroxide.
kw of water
Kw of Water
  • From the auto-ionization expression of water we get the equilibrium constant expression.
  • 2 H2O  H3O+ + OH-
  • Kw= [H3O+ ][OH-]
  • Why not H2O?
  • Kw= [H+ ][OH-]
kw is the ion product
Kw is the ion-product
  • Kw is aka dissociation constant of water
  • It has been found experimentally that at 25 °C,
  • [H+ ]=[OH-] and they both equal 1X10-7M
  • Since Kw= [H+ ][OH-] = [1X10-7M]2
  • Then Kw = 1X 10-14.
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