lecture 32 subordination ii n.
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Lecture 32 Subordination (II). 32.1 Infinitive clauses 1) Types of infinitive clauses A) Infinitive clause without expressed subject Eg. I hope to be able to come. B) Infinitive clause with expressed subject Eg. The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.

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lecture 32 subordination ii
Lecture 32 Subordination (II)
  • 32.1 Infinitive clauses
  • 1) Types of infinitive clauses
  • A) Infinitive clause without expressed subject
  • Eg. I hope to be able to come.
  • B) Infinitive clause with expressed subject
  • Eg. The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.
  • C) Infinitive clause introduced by wh-word or subordinator
  • Eg. I don’t know what to do / how to do it/ where to go .
slide2
2) syntactic functions of infinitive clauses
  • 32.2 –ing participle clauses
  • 1) Types of –ing participle clauses
  • A) –Ing participle clause without expressed subject or subordinator
  • Eg. He denied having been there.
  • B) –ing participle clause with subordinator
  • Eg. When sleeping, I never hear a thing.
  • C) –ing participle clause with expressed subject
  • Eg. Do you mind my/ me making a suggestion ?
slide3
2) syntactic functions of –ing participle clauses
  • A) Both –ing participle and infinitive clauses can be used as subject, object, and subject/ object complement.
  • Eg. I like getting up early in the morning. I like to get up early in the morning.
  • B) As adverbials, -ing participle clauses can be used in various senses.
  • Eg. Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view.
  • Being a hard-working young man, he was praised by his teachers.
slide4
32.3 –ed participle clauses
  • 1) Types of –ed participle clauses
  • A) –ed participle clause without expressed subject or subordinator
  • Eg. Covered with confusion, she hurriedly left the room.
  • B) –ed participle clause with subordinator
  • Eg. Once published, the book caused a remarkable stir.
  • C) –ed participle clause with expressed subject
  • Eg. The job finished, we went home straight away.
slide5
32.4 Verbless clauses
  • 1) Types of verbless clauses
  • A ) Verbless clause without subordinator
  • Eg. Right or wrong, I have given him a piece of mind.
  • An excellent speaker, he was never at a loss for a word.
  • B) Verbless clause with subordinator
  • Eg. Whatever the reason, his cordiality has won him a friend.
  • Although very helpful, he was not much liked by people.
slide6
C) Verbless clause with expressed subject
  • Eg. Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children.
  • 2) Syntactic functions of verbless clauses
  • Eg. You must eat it when fresh.
  • The cardboard is light-proof where thick.
  • 32.5 “Absolute constructions”
  • 1) Types of “absolute constructions”
  • 2) Uses of “absolute constructions”
  • Eg. His homework done, Jim decided to go and see the play.
  • Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move.