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Co-existence and Niche Segregation of Sanje Mangabey And Iringa Red Colobus Monkey in Udzungwa National Park. (A Case Study of Mwanihana forest and Mang’ula) Kambi,Mohamed A Mail bag,436-moshi,Kilimanjaro CAWM-MWEKA Diploma thesis. INTRODUCTION Background Information

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    1. Co-existence and Niche Segregation of Sanje Mangabey And Iringa Red Colobus Monkey in Udzungwa National Park. (A Case Study of Mwanihana forest and Mang’ula) Kambi,Mohamed A Mail bag,436-moshi,Kilimanjaro CAWM-MWEKA Diploma thesis

    2. INTRODUCTION Background Information Related species that live together are thought to show specialization or niche differentiation to avoid competition Niche differentiation may result from habitat segregation, morphological adaptation or behavioral adaptation However, it may result from historical interspecific competition (Connel, 1980). Morphological specialization could be advantageous if it diminishes resources competition with other species. These primates co-exist in the same habitat despite their similar size.

    3. General Overview The Sanje Mangabey has so far been found in only two forests: Mwanihana, and the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve. Estimates indicate that less than 1,500 individuals of this species remain.

    4. Problem Statement and Justification There have been studies concerning primates in East Africa although; very little work has been done in Tanzania. More recently studies in Tanzania have been concentrated on large mammals and no systematic studies have been carried out on the primates in Udzungwa N.P to focus on Co-existence and niche segregation of the two primate species. Consequently, the gap existing now between my study and others is to focus on specific reason behind for the two primate species to co-exist and how they share ecolological niche, as this study has never been done before.

    5. OBJECTIVES: • General Objective • Dietary specialization and habitat preference in relation to the co-existence and niche segregation of the named two primate species. Specific objectives • Determination of the dietary specialization in relation to the co-existence of Sanje Mangabey and Iringa Red Colobus Monkey. • Determination of the habitat use in relation to the niche segregation of Sanje Mangabey and Iringa Red Colobus Monkey Research hypothesis • Null hypothesis (Ho), there is no significant difference between the diet taken by Sanje Mangabey and that of Iringa Red Colobus Monkey.

    6. Research Questions cont... • Null hypothesis(Ho)There is no significant difference between the habitat use in Sanje and Iringa red colobus monkey NB:Hypothesis is tested by experimentation 

    7. Research Questions • How these two species of primate are able to co-exist. • To what extent these species have segregated their diets. • Whether this segregation is a strategy to prevent niche overlap and reduce competition.

    8. METHODOLOGY Study area description This research is will be conducted at Udzungwa Mountains National Park whichis located at 3º41'E and 7º48'S between Iringa and Morogoro regions of south central Tanzania. Udzungwa Mountains National Park covering about 1990 km2 and it lies between 200m and 2576m above the sea level. Udzungwa Mountains National Park was gazetted in 1992 in accordance with the National Parks ordinance (Cap 412) of 1959 by excising land from five forest reserves that had been established since early 1940’s. The forest reserves include Mwanihana, Iwonde, Nyanganje, Matundu and a portion of west Kilombero Scrap. (Udzungwa GMP, 2001).

    9. The Udzungwa Mountains

    10. Methods Sampling techniques • Random sampling will be employed in the study area where scientific one involves random selection for a list of all possible sampling units again, all habitat units have the same chance of being selected, sampling procedure is considered as random sampling

    11. Methods cont… Scanning Method This method involves tracking the animal under the trees and recording what the group perform and if feeding, look on which type of food is taking and then recording. Its advantage helps in collection of data other than feeding or behavioral studies but anticlockwise it time consuming technique. (Kangwana, 1996)

    12. Methods cont… Line transect This method will be used to explore different habitat inhabited by the primates and consequently to come up with the habitat preference of the two named primate species. Ten transects will be established each with the length of 500metres and 50metres by its width, on either side and the baseline will have the length of 1 km

    13. Methods cont… Direct observation I will be observing them for at least 5 min. with 15 min interval per day, Some groups will be observed on several occasions for a total observation time of 6 hrs per day. When the colobus or mangabey feeds, a plant sample will be taken and later identified. All polyspecific associations and interspecific interactions will be recorded.

    14. Methods cont… Data analysis Data will be analyzed by using two tailed t-test as a statistical test, my study will be focusing on the comparison of the diet taken by Sanje Mangabey and that of Iringa red colobus monkey in relation to their coexistence and niche segregation, again habitat preference will be another variable which am going to look at. different vegetation types will be collected and identified from different habitat as I stated before, the data will be used to compare the food preference in each species. The data will be further analyzed by the use of chi-squire test and be presented in pie charts and bar

    15. Literature review The behavioural ecology of P. b. gordonorum has yet to be studied in detail. Prior to this study, the only available information was obtained in 1977 (Struhsaker & Leland, 1980). Again, Rovero and his colleague conducted a research in Mwanihana forest focused on abundance of diurnal primates, while Strushaker in 2004 and his colleague carry out a field research on Demographic Variation among Udzungwa Red Colobus Monkey in relation to Gross Ecological and Sociological parameters.

    16. REFERENCES • Bookhout, T.A. (1994) Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats. 5th ed. The Wildlife Society, Bathesda • Caughley, G. and Sinclair, A.R.E (1994) Wildlife Ecology and Management. Excel Typesetters Co. Hong Kong • Connel, J.H (1980) Diversity and co evolution of competitors, or the ghost of the past.Oikos 35, 131-138

    17. Work plan from 24th April to 8th May 2009

    18. Appendix 1: Research budget for 15 days

    19. Thank you everybody indeed for listening, WELCOME UDZUNGWA MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK (UMNP)