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Geography 202 section 502. Course material is available on the web: http://geog.tamu.edu/~pjhugill/ If you have problems with that go to geography.tamu.edu, to directory, to faculty, to Peter J. Hugill, and to Geography 202 For all course policies, dates etc. see course outline (on the web)

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geography 202 section 502
Geography 202 section 502
  • Course material is available on the web: http://geog.tamu.edu/~pjhugill/
  • If you have problems with that go to geography.tamu.edu, to directory, to faculty, to Peter J. Hugill, and to Geography 202
  • For all course policies, dates etc. see course outline (on the web)
  • My office hours are TR 4-5 pm, Eller O&M 803C, or by appt.
  • Please e-mail me only if its urgent. If its not from a Neo account I usually won’t read it!
1 diversity amid globalization

1. Diversity amid Globalization

World Regions; Demographics;

Cultures; Geopolitics; Economies

five hegemonies in 500 years
Five Hegemonies in 500 years
  • (1) Portugal-mid 1500s
  • (2) Holland-mid1600s
  • (3) Britain I-mid 1700s (ended 1776)
  • (4) Britain II-mid 1800s (1815-83)
  • (5) USA-mid 1900s (1945-73)
  • (6) USA II???
two types of diversity
Two Types of Diversity
  • Diversity over Space--what geographers call “areal differentiation” or, why different world regions differ (culture & history).
  • Diversity over Time--or, the past is not a perfect guide to the future (although we should not ignore it!) Much of the success of leaders such as FDR & Churchill came from knowing history--failure of Hitler and Lenin for thinking they could reinvent it.
world regions
World Regions
  • What defines a region?
  • Part physical, part human geography
  • Physical regions at this scale largely defined by plate tectonics
  • Some physical regions climatic, others based on vegetation--at sub-tectonic level
  • Part economic, part cultural geography
  • Part legal, part illegal trade
  • Part political (internal), part geopolitical (external)
world trade organization
World Trade Organization
  • WTO Single most powerful NGO
  • Nation-States increasingly have ceded power to supra-national political organizations (EU, NATO) & NGOs
  • NGOs date to “new nationalism” of late 1800s, needed to manage resources across state boundaries (time zones came first!)
  • World increasingly a mosaic of NGOs
  • Reflects legal component of world-economy
global illicit trade terrorism
Global Illicit Trade/Terrorism
  • Reflects that component of world-economy operated by non-state actors
  • Slavery, prostitution, drugs, pornography were legal in past. Middle class nation-states made them increasingly illegal
  • Terrorism is a response to the emergence of the nation-state
  • Slavery, prostitution, drugs, pornography, & terrorism are downsides of globalization (but getting rid of globalization won’t make them go away since there is demand/support for them!)
defining the region the metageography of world regions
Physical Characteristics

Areally Compact

Common Geological History

Common Climate

Common Vegetation

Human Characteristics

Common History

Common Economic Activity

Common Language

Common Religion

Common Political System

Common Geopolitics

Defining the Region: the Metageography of World Regions
world population
World Population
  • Two regions dominate world population map: China & India
  • Global population currently 6 billion and rising fast
  • Almost all rise is in less-developed world
  • Traditional model of control through economic development
demographic indicators
Demographic Indicators
  • Main problem TFR (number of children per female)
  • TFR controlled by # of fertile females & cultural habits of reproduction--these last vary VERY widely
  • West’s habits are delayed marriage, strong female control over decision to reproduce
  • TFR of 2 would maintain population as is in very long term
population pyramids
Population Pyramids
  • Classic “pyramid” that of Nigeria. High dependency ratio in 0-14 age categories, with high infant mortality
  • Slow or no growth “pyramids” have different dependency ratio, 65 and up
  • BUT, elderly provide indirect economic benefits (caring for grandchildren, as volunteers etc.)
  • In developed countries people 65 and up still consume heavily, which drives economy, especially medical services.
demographic transition
Demographic Transition
  • Main flaws are is that is modeled on western experience, assumes economic development
  • Overall, death rates fall first as various conditions improve. Birth rates fall later. Population moves from one phase of stability to another, but numbers increase greatly. Health care unimportant until Stage 4
  • Stage 2 crudely depicted--really a two (or more) stage process
  • 2 (A) reduction in deaths from better food supply, sometimes because of more productive agriculture, but ALWAYS because of better transportation--most famines highly localized crop failures
  • 2 (B) reduction in deaths from better public health, in particular separating water supplies from human waste, thus preventing such killers as cholera
  • Stage 3 birth rate reduces mostly because of education of women
  • Stage 4 main increase in life expectancy from improvements in health care. Birth rate variations from war and social forces.
world cities
World Cities
  • More than 50% world population now urban
  • Historically cities only grew from rural-urban migration (cities had high death rates)
  • Largest cities growing fastest, most from continued massive rural-urban migration, part from reproduction
  • World’s fastest growing cities all in LDC’s
  • Megalopolis (developed world) versus megacity (LDCs)
the main measures of culture
The Main Measures of Culture
  • Huntington (The Clash of Civilizations) suggests there are two main measures of culture
  • Language
  • Religion
  • We can, of course, define others
world languages
World Languages
  • Most major world regions unlike our own. North America has only three “official” languages (one very minor), US only one
  • Most major world regions polyglot. Have multiple “official” languages, spoken & written
  • China relatively unusual in that, although polyglot, has single “official” written language
world religions
World Religions
  • World much more religiously homogenous than linguistically
  • Four major religions dominate planet: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam
  • Of those only Christianity and Islam proselytize heavily, have been see-sawing for world dominance for past 600 years
  • Currently Christianity ahead, growing most by conversion, Islam by reproduction.
rise of the nation state
Rise of the Nation-State
  • Main organizing principle of world politics is territorially bounded nation-state (NS) (true NS should be ethnically homogenous--almost never is)
  • NS very recent idea: idea of “natural boundaries” first propounded in French Revolution
  • NS became powerful in late 1800s as old agrarian societies collapsed. NS was buffer against possessive individualism of laissez-faire capitalism
  • Spread widely in “New Nationalism” of late 1800s
nations without states
Nations without States
  • Ideal of NS became globally dominant only after WWII, fall of most of old global empires, and creation of UN
  • Full dominance of NS came w/fall of last empire, the USSR
  • World is mosaic of nations, few of which politically control states (i.e. a coherent territory). Many are “non-state actors” embedded (relatively) peacefully within nation-states. N. American examples are PQ, Indian groups with tribal territories, Mormons, Hispanics in US SW, Nation of Islam etc.
  • Some non-state actors turn to violence to achieve political control of territory & establish a state (e.g. IRA, Chechens, Kurds etc. etc.)
reasons for war casus belli
Reasons for War (casus belli)
  • Europe most war prone region of planet for last 2,000 years
  • Chinese “warring states” period ended 221 BC
  • Three reasons for war in Europe:
  • (1) To force one’s ideology on another (traditionally in Europe wars of dynastic succession or religion)--Hundred Years War (1337-1453), Eighty Years War (1568-1648), Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
  • (2) Possession of WMD (in current terms!)--Grotius’s doctrine of pre-emptive strike based on Drake’s Corunna Raid of 1587
  • (3) Violation of territorial integrity of nation-state--only casus belli since 1648 because of immense destruction of civilian populations in Thirty Years War--at least 30% of population of Germany killed.
  • From 1648 to c. 1916 western war was between professional armies
  • after c. 1916 war again on civilians in west (U-boats, air raids)
colonial world
Colonial World
  • Between 1800 & 1914 Europe, Russia, & US expanded from controlling 35% of earth’s surface to 84%
  • Less than 100 years ago, just before WWI, most of world was a mosaic of nations embedded in 14 Empires, incl. that of US. Almost no modern style nation-states existed
  • “New Nationalism” of late 1800s had huge impact
  • World of 1914 overthrown by two world wars and series of revolutionary shifts (to communism in USSR, national socialism in Germany & Japan, democracy in US, social democracy in what has become EU)
gni ppp per capita
GNI/PPP per capita
  • Table 1:2 shows Gross National Income per capita as well as Purchasing Power Parity (GNI adjusted for what things cost in real terms)
  • Omits EU, but EU only major world region close to US (Eurostat does not aggregate across EU 25, but EU overall has slightly larger share of world GNI than US)
  • Note that China is highly unlikely to pose serious economic challenge to US for foreseeable future (30 years or so)
social indicators
Social indicators
  • Main shift in West in last 50 years has been marked reduction in discrimination against females
  • Female labor force participation should be high 40%
  • Life expectancy for females should now exceed that for men by several years--if not is strong evidence of discrimination
  • Illiteracy rates should be roughly similar for males and females
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