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Funding. Coordination. Project Management. Structural Approaches – Dikes, Reservoirs and Dams. IMPROVEMENT OF THE GENERAL RESISTANCE OF DIKES AGAINST EROSION DURING DIKE OVERFLOW. Tobias Kubetzek, Jesper Steuernagel, Hendrik Ramm, Nicole Saenger, Ulrich Zanke. Introduction . Introduction

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slide1
Funding

Coordination

Project Management

Structural Approaches – Dikes, Reservoirs and Dams

IMPROVEMENT OF THE GENERAL RESISTANCE OF DIKES AGAINST EROSION DURING DIKE OVERFLOW

Tobias Kubetzek, Jesper Steuernagel, Hendrik Ramm, Nicole Saenger, Ulrich Zanke

slide2
Introduction

Introduction

Experiment

Set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Urbanization brought a great damage potential to the areas along the rivers and to former floodplains. This trend has not been stopped yet
  • During the last flood periods several dams and dikes broke, causing enormous damage and the loss of many lives
  • As a consequence of the climate change the sea level and the river gauges will rise. Dikes existing could lose their protectional function within the next years
  • In the near future the majority of the German river dikes must be redeveloped

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 2

slide3
Introduction

Introduction

Experiment

Set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Dikes effected by overflow must be built as an overflow structure, otherwise overflowing water erodes the top and the landside of the dike
  • In general erosion leads to a quick collapse of the dike
  • Common overflow section of dikes are protected by armourstones or concrete sealing. These methods are not suitable for the long distances of river dikes
  • Conventional structures of geosynthetics are not practicable for redevelopement

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 3

slide4
Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 4

slide5
Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Full scale research dike (dimensions of a common dike along the Rhine, Germany)
  • A closed sheeting and a high capacity propeller pump enable the overtopping of the dike
  • Two experimental areas
  • Weir heads according to the width of the spillway slab

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 5

slide6
Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 6

slide7
Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Revetment with new combinations of geosynthetics
    • Erosion control mat
    • Geogrid (top layer)
    • Non woven geotextile
    • Geogrid (bottom layer)
  • Top soil not as sacrificial layer but as part of the revetment
  • Stable with and without vegetation

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 7

slide8
Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Fixing by pegs
    • State of construction
    • Worst case scenario
  • Stabilization by root penetration
    • Common loading case
    • Difficult to calculate
    • Laboratory test of shear resistance

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 8

slide9
Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Erosion of top soil and vegetation
  • Gliding of the top soil on the geosynthetics
  • Gliding of the geosynthetics on the ground
  • Erosion beneath the geosynthetics
  • Failure of the geosynthetics or the anchorage

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 9

slide10
Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Erosion of top soil and vegetation
  • Gliding of the topsoil on the geosynthetics
  • Gliding of the geosynthetics on the ground
  • Erosion beneath the geosynthetics
  • Failure of the geosynthetics or the anchorage

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 10

slide11
Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Wire heads up to 1.0 m causes shear stresses of approx. 900 N/m²
  • Investigation of heads up to 0.3 m
  • Loads have to be transferred by pegs

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 11

slide12
Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Minimization of load-displacement
  • Search for an optimal pitch
    • Reduction of effort while increase in efficiency
    • Reduction of the number of parts lowers the cost of deployment and maintenance

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 12

slide13
Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Finite-Element-Method (FEM) simulation of the deformation
    • ABAQUS 2-D-model
  • FEM-simulation of the estimated forces during the overflow
    • ABAQUS 3-D-model
    • Adaption of the peg pitch
    • Adaption of the top anchorage

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 13

slide14
Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Starting conditions
    • Peg dimension of 0.5 m length and Ø=12 mm
    • Spillway slab of 20 m to 12 m
    • Starting pitch 1 x 1 m
    • Non-vegetated (worst case) revetment

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 14

slide15
Measurement program

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Pressure sensor
    • Indikation of turbulences
  • Area scanner
    • Deformation of the geosynthetics
  • Ground radar
    • Erosion beneath the geosynthetics
    • Change in density of / rearrangement in the subsoil
  • If applicable
    • Resistance strain gauges on the geogrid
  • Turbidity sensor
    • Indication of erosion

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 15

slide16
Outlook

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Short-term experiments in 2008
    • Certification of the effectivity of the geosynthetic combination (stability in a worst case scenario)
    • Optimizing the pitch for the pegs
  • Long-term experiment (winter 2008 / spring 2009)
    • Laboratory test of the shear resistance
    • Overflow on the vegetated testing area
    • Experiments with alternative erosion protection measures
  • Aim
    • Consideration of our results in the guidance for the remediation of the river dikes in Hesse, Germany

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 16

slide17
End

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

Thank you for your attention

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 17

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