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CHAPTER 2. Communication, Networks, The internet and the Worldwide Web. What is a network?. A collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and media Modems Cables Telephone lines Satellites. The Internet.

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CHAPTER 2

Communication, Networks, The internet and the Worldwide Web

the internet
What is a network?

A collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and media

Modems

Cables

Telephone lines

Satellites

The Internet
the internet1
What are some of the services found on the Internet?The Internet

instant messaging

e-mail

Web

message board

chat

file transfer

Next

p. 2.3 Fig. 2-1

history of the internet
How did the Internet originate? History of the Internet

Goal:To allow scientists at different locations to share information and work together on military and scientific projects

ARPANET

Networking project by Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)

Became functional in September 1969

Goal:Tofunction even if part of the network were disabled or destroyed

history of the internet1
Who provides the structure for the Internet today?History of the Internet

Networks from corporations, commercial firms, and other companies

Telephone companies

Cable companies

Government

Satellite companies

history of the internet2
Who controls the Internet?

The Internet is a public, cooperative, and independent network

No single entity controls or owns the Internet

Several organizations advise and define standards

History of the Internet
  • Internet2 (I2)
    • Internet-related research and development project
    • Develops and tests advanced Internet technologies
  • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
    • Oversees research and sets standards and guidelines
how the internet works
How can you connect to the Internet?How the Internet Works

High speed connection

  • Employees and students
  • Computers part of a local area network (LAN)
  • Connect to service provider through a high-speed connection line leased from local telephone company

Dial-up access

  • Home or small business
  • Computer, modem, regular telephone line
  • Dial into an ISP or OSP

Newer high-speed technologies

  • Home and small business
  • Digital subscriber line (DSL) – provides high-speed Internet connections over regular copper telephone line
  • Cable modem- provides high-speed Internet connections through cable television network
how the internet works1
How might data travel the Internet using a telephone line connection?How the Internet Works

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

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National ISP

National ISP

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Local ISP

Local ISP

Internet backbone

Internet backbone

Internet backbone

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National ISP

National ISP

National ISP

1: You initiate an action to request data from the Internet.

2: A modem converts the digital signals from the computer into analog signals, which are understood by telephone lines.

3: Data (request) travels through telephone lines to a local ISP.

4: Data may pass through one or more routers before reaching its final destination.

5: The regional ISP uses lines, leased from a telephone company, to send data to a national ISP.

6: The national ISP routes data across the country to another national ISP.

7: Data moves from a national ISP to a local ISP and then to a destination server.

8: The server retrieves the requested data and sends it back through the Internet backbone to your computer.

how the internet works2
What is an Internet protocol (IP) address?

Number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet

Four groups of numbers, each separated by a period

Number in each group is between 0 and 255

How the Internet Works

199.95.72.10

last part identifies specific computer

first part identifies network

IP address

how the internet works3
What is a domain name?

Text version of an IP address

Components are separated by periods

Each domain name represents one or more IP addresses

How the Internet Works

www.scsite.com

IP address

199.95.72.10

Domain name

how the internet works4
What is a top-level domain (TLD) abbreviation?

Identifies the type of organization associated with the domain

Sometimes called dot com when TLD is com

How the Internet Works
how the internet works5
What systems control domain names?How the Internet Works

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

Group that assigns and controls TLDs

Domain name system (DNS)

System on the Internet that stores the domain names and their corresponding IP addresses

DNS server

Translates the domain name into its associated IP address

the world wide web
What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?

Also known as the Web

A worldwide collection of electronic documents

Each document on the Web is called a Web page

Can contain text, graphics, sound, and video

Can contain built-in connections to other documents

A Web site is a collection of related Web pages

The World Wide Web
the world wide web1
What is a Web browser?

Also called a browser

The World Wide Web
  • Software program that allows you to access and view Web pages
  • Two popular browsers for personal computers
    • Netscape
  • Internet Explorer
the world wide web2
What is surfing the Web?

Links can point to an item on the same Web page, a different Web page at the same Web site, or a separate Web page at a different Web site in another city or country

The World Wide Web
  • The activity of jumping from one Web page to another is surfing
the world wide web3
What are the parts of a URL?The World Wide Web

protocol

domain name

path

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/index.html

web publishing
What is needed for creating a Web page?

Also called Web page authoring

Web Publishing
  • Hardware
  • Digital camera
  • Scanner
  • Sound card
  • Microphone
  • PC camera
  • Software to prepare HTML
  • HTML (hypertext markup language)
  • A set of special codes that format a file for use as a Web page
  • Created with either:
    • Word processing package
    • Web page authoring software
web publishing1
How do you deploy a Web site?Web Publishing

Locate a Web server to store your site

  • Provided by many ISPs and OSPs at no additional cost
  • Provided by a Web hosting service for a monthly fee

Upload, or copy, the site to the Web server

web publishing2
What else might be needed to create a Web site?Web Publishing

Apply to an official registrar for a specific domain name

Register site with search engines using a submission service

  • A Web-based business that helps register your site

Webmaster

Individual responsible for maintaining a Web site and developing Web pages

other internet services
What is e-mail?

Electronic mail

The transmission of messages and files via a computer network

Use an e-mail program to work with messages

Other Internet Services

create

forward

send

print

receive

store

delete

other internet services1
How do you send an e-mail message?Other Internet Services

Step 1

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1 Start an e-mail program and point to the New Mail Message button

2 Click the New Mail Message button to display the Message window

3 Enter the recipient’s e-mail address, the subject, and the message in the Message window

4 Click the Insert File button to attach a JPG file containing a picture to the message. Locate the file on your hard disk and click its name. An icon for the file displays. Click the Send button to send the message.

5 When Sally receives the e-mail message, she opens the JPG file to view the picture.

other internet services2
What is an Internet e-mail address?

A combination of a user name and a domain name that identifies a user so he or she can receive Internet e-mail

Other Internet Services

user name or user-ID

A unique combination of characters that identifies you

domain name

Identifies the mail server

at

other internet services3
How can you get e-mail?

Most ISPs and OSPs provide an Internet e-mail program and a mailbox on a mail server as a standard part of their Internet access services

Some Web sites provide e-mail services free of charge

Other Internet Services

address book

Allows you to store a list of names and e-mail addresses

mail server

The server that contains the mailboxes

mailbox

Storage location usually residing on the computer that connects you to the Internet

other internet services4
What is FTP?

File Transfer Protocol

Other Internet Services

file download window

  • An Internet standard that allows you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet