Literary Relationships Among the Gospels. The Synoptic Problem. Similarities & Differences in the Synoptic Gospels. Close verbal agreement; sometimes identical Same story found in different forms – longer/shorter Same story told very differently
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The Synoptic Problem
Since many have undertaken to set down an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed on to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, I too decided, after investigating everything carefully from the very first, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, so that you may know the truth concerning the things about which you have been instructed.(New Revised Standard Version)
John Luke Mark Matthew
Matthew written first,then Luke used Matthew, then Mark used Matthew and Luke as his two sources.
Mark and Q were written first. Matthew and Luke used these two as their sources. Q = a “sayings of Jesus” collection; a theoretical document.
Matthew and Luke used Mark, Q, M, and L as sources.
M = special material only found in Matthew
L = special material only found in Luke