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Chapter 3 outline

Chapter 3 outline

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Chapter 3 outline

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  1. 3.1 Transport-layer services 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 3.3 Connectionless transport: UDP 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer 3.5 Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management 3.6 Principles of congestion control 3.7 TCP congestion control Chapter 3 outline Transport Layer

  2. full duplex data: bi-directional data flow in same connection MSS: maximum segment size connection-oriented: handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init’s sender, receiver state before data exchange flow controlled: sender will not overwhelm receiver Point-to-point: one sender, one receiver reliable, in-order byte steam: no “message boundaries” pipelined: TCP congestion and flow control set window size send & receive buffers TCP: OverviewRFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581 Transport Layer

  3. 32 bits source port # dest port # sequence number acknowledgement number head len not used Receive window U A P R S F checksum Urg data pnter Options (variable length) application data (variable length) TCP segment structure URG: urgent data (generally not used) counting by bytes of data (not segments!) ACK: ACK # valid # bytes rcvr willing to accept PSH: push data now RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) Internet checksum (as in UDP) Transport Layer

  4. Seq. #’s: byte stream “number” of first byte in segment’s data ACKs: seq # of next byte expected from other side In Rdt x.x protocols, the ack seq# is the current received one cumulative ACK different from Selective Repeat Q: how receiver handles out-of-order segments? A: TCP spec doesn’t say Practical approach: save in buffer Q: How TCP implement duplex communication? Seq. # for sending data, Ack# for receiving data TCP seq. #’s and ACKs Transport Layer

  5. outgoing segment from sender source port # source port # dest port # dest port # incoming segment to sender sequence number sequence number acknowledgement number acknowledgement number rwnd rwnd checksum checksum urg pointer urg pointer A window size N • sender sequence number space sent ACKed usable but not yet sent sent, not-yet ACKed (“in-flight”) not usable Transport Layer

  6. time Duplex-Communication Example B’s out-data A’s out-data Host B Host A User 79 Seq=42, ACK=79, data = ‘john’ 42 host ACKs receipt, echoes back ‘pass’ Seq=79, ACK=46, data = ‘pass’ host ACKs receipt, send back use password Seq=46, ACK=83 data =‘CNT4704’ Sequence number is based on bytes, not packets simple telnet scenario Transport Layer

  7. Q: how to set TCP timeout value? longer than RTT but RTT varies too short: premature timeout unnecessary retransmissions too long: slow reaction to segment loss Q: how to estimate RTT? SampleRTT: measured time from segment transmission until ACK receipt ignore retransmissions SampleRTT will vary, want estimated RTT “smoother” average several recent measurements, not just current SampleRTT TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout Transport Layer

  8. TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout • Exponential weighted moving average • influence of past sample decreases exponentially fast • typical value:  = 0.125 [RFC 2988] EstimatedRTT = (1- )*EstimatedRTT + *SampleRTT Transport Layer

  9. Example RTT estimation: Transport Layer

  10. Setting the timeout EstimtedRTT plus “safety margin” large variation in EstimatedRTT -> larger safety margin first estimate of how much SampleRTT deviates from EstimatedRTT: TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout DevRTT = (1-)*DevRTT + *|SampleRTT-EstimatedRTT| (typically,  = 0.25) [RFC 2988] Then set timeout interval: TimeoutInterval = EstimatedRTT + 4*DevRTT Transport Layer

  11. 3.1 Transport-layer services 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 3.3 Connectionless transport: UDP 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer 3.5 Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management 3.6 Principles of congestion control 3.7 TCP congestion control Chapter 3 outline Transport Layer

  12. TCP creates rdt service on top of IP’s unreliable service Pipelined segments Cumulative acks Similar to GBN TCP uses single retransmission timer Similar to GBN Remove the timer management overhead Out of order packets Not specified Usually buffered Similar to SR Retransmissions are triggered by: timeout events duplicate acks TCP reliable data transfer Transport Layer

  13. data rcvd from app: Create segment with seq # seq # is byte-stream number of first data byte in segment start timer if not already running (think of timer as for oldest unacked segment) expiration interval: TimeOutInterval timeout: retransmit the oldest segment in the pipelining window Not Go Back all N segments restart timer Ack rcvd: If acknowledges previously unacked segments update what is known to be acked start timer if there are outstanding segments (since cumulative acks) Similar to GBN TCP sender events: Transport Layer

  14. NextSeqNum = InitialSeqNum SendBase = InitialSeqNum loop (forever) { switch(event) event: data received from application above create TCP segment with sequence number NextSeqNum if (timer currently not running) start timer pass segment to IP NextSeqNum = NextSeqNum + length(data) event: timer timeout retransmit not-yet-acknowledged segment with smallest sequence number start timer event: ACK received, with ACK field value of y if (y > SendBase) { SendBase = y if (there are currently not-yet-acknowledged segments) start timer else stop timer } } /* end of loop forever */ TCP sender(simplified) Comment: • One direction only • SendBase-1: last cumulatively ack’ed byte Example: • SendBase-1 = 71;y= 73, so the rcvrwants 73+ ;y > SendBase, sothat new data is acked Transport Layer

  15. Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 Seq=92 timeout timeout X loss Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 time time lost ACK scenario TCP: retransmission scenarios Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data Seq=100, 20 bytes data ACK=100 ACK=120 Seq=92, 8 bytes data Sendbase = 100 SendBase = 120 ACK=120 Seq=92 timeout SendBase = 100 SendBase = 120 premature timeout Transport Layer

  16. Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 Seq=92 timeout Seq=100, 20 bytes data timeout X loss ACK=120 time time Cumulative ACK scenario TCP retransmission scenarios (more) Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data Seq=100, 20 bytes data ACK=100 ACK=120 Seq=92, 8 bytes data Sendbase = 100 SendBase = 120 SendBase = 120 ACK=120 Seq=92 timeout SendBase = 120 premature timeout Transport Layer

  17. TCP ACK generation[RFC 1122, RFC 2581] TCP Receiver action Delayed ACK. Wait up to 500ms for next segment. If no next segment, send ACK (why?) Immediately send single cumulative ACK, ACKing both in-order segments Immediately send duplicate ACK, indicating seq. # of next expected byte Immediate send ACK, provided that segment starts at lower end of gap Event at Receiver Arrival of in-order segment with expected seq #. All data up to expected seq # already ACKed Arrival of in-order segment with expected seq #. One other segment has ACK pending Arrival of out-of-order segment higher-than-expect seq. # . Gap detected Arrival of segment that partially or completely fills gap Transport Layer

  18. Retransmission triggered by timeout Time-out period often relatively long: long delay before resending lost packet Detect lost segments via duplicate ACKs. Sender often sends many segments back-to-back (pipelining) If segment is lost, there will likely be many duplicate ACKs. If sender receives 3 ACKs for the same data, it supposes that segment after ACKed data was lost: fast retransmit:resend segment before timer expires Fast Retransmit Transport Layer

  19. Fast retransmit algorithm: event: ACK received, with ACK field value of y if (y > SendBase) { SendBase = y if (there are currently not-yet-acknowledged segments) start timer } else { increment count of dup ACKs received for y if (count of dup ACKs received for y = 3) { resend segment with sequence number y } a duplicate ACK for already ACKed segment fast retransmit Transport Layer

  20. 3.1 Transport-layer services 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 3.3 Connectionless transport: UDP 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer 3.5 Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management 3.6 Principles of congestion control 3.7 TCP congestion control Chapter 3 outline Transport Layer

  21. TCP: GBN or SR? • Cumulative Acks --- GBN • Buffer out-of-order packets --- SR • Retransmit current BaseSeq packet only when timeout --- SR • TCP: a hybrid protocol • ACK #: not packet number, but byte number • ACK #: expected (not like rdt x.x) Transport Layer

  22. receive side of TCP connection has a receive buffer: speed-matching service: matching the send rate to the receiving app’s drain rate flow control sender won’t overflow receiver’s buffer by transmitting too much, too fast TCP Flow Control • app process may be slow at reading from buffer Transport Layer

  23. (Suppose TCP receiver discards out-of-order segments) spare room in buffer = RcvWindow = RcvBuffer-[LastByteRcvd - LastByteRead] Rcvr advertises spare room by including value of RcvWindow in TCP header Sender limits unACKed data to RcvWindow guarantees receive buffer doesn’t overflow TCP Flow control: how it works Transport Layer

  24. 3.1 Transport-layer services 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 3.3 Connectionless transport: UDP 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer 3.5 Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management 3.6 Principles of congestion control 3.7 TCP congestion control Chapter 3 outline Transport Layer

  25. Recall:TCP sender, receiver establish “connection” before exchanging data segments initialize TCP variables: seq. #s Why not always 0? No confusion Security buffers, flow control info (e.g. RcvWindow) client: connection initiator connect(); server: contacted by client accept(); TCP Connection Management Transport Layer

  26. TCP Connection Setup --- Three-Way Handshaking Step 1:client host sends TCP SYN segment to server • specifies initial seq # • no data Step 2:server host receives SYN, replies with SYN/ACK segment • server allocates buffers • specifies server initial seq. # Step 3: client receives SYN/ACK, replies with ACK segment, which may contain data Wireshark Example client server SYN, seq=client_seq SYN/ACK, seq=server_seq, ack=client_seq+1 ACK, seq=client_seq+1 ack=server_seq+1 Transport Layer

  27. Wireshark shows relative sequence number by default (SYN packet always has seq=0) • You can disable this feature by • “Edit”  “Preference”  “Protocol”  “TCP” • Uncheck “relative sequence number” Transport Layer

  28. Closing a connection: close(); Step 1:client end system sends TCP/FIN control segment to server Step 2:server receives FIN, replies with ACK. Closes connection, sends FIN. client server close FIN ACK close FIN ACK timed wait closed TCP Connection Management (cont.) Transport Layer

  29. Step 3:client receives FIN, replies with ACK. Enters “timed wait” - will respond with ACK to received FINs Step 4:server, receives ACK. Connection closed. TCP Connection Management (cont.) client server closing FIN ACK closing FIN ACK Some applications simply send RST to terminate TCP connections immediately timed wait closed closed Wireshark Example Transport Layer

  30. 3.1 Transport-layer services 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 3.3 Connectionless transport: UDP 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer 3.5 Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management 3.6Principles of congestion control 3.7 TCP congestion control Chapter 3 outline Transport Layer

  31. Congestion: informally: “too many sources sending too much data too fast for network to handle” different from flow control! manifestations: lost packets (buffer overflow at routers) long delays (queueing in router buffers) a top-10 problem! Principles of Congestion Control Transport Layer

  32. two senders, two receivers one router, infinite buffers no retransmission large delays when congested maximum achievable throughput Host A Host B Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 1 lout lin : original data unlimited shared output link buffers Remember the queue delay formula? Transport Layer

  33. one router, finite buffers sender retransmission of lost packet Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 2 Host A lout lin: original data l'in: original data, plus retransmitted data Host B finite shared output link buffers Transport Layer

  34. Always want : (goodput) “perfect” retransmission only when loss: retransmission of delayed (not lost) packet makes larger (than perfect case) for same l l l > = l l l R/2 in in in R/2 R/2 out out out R/3 lout lout lout R/4 R/2 R/2 R/2 lin lin lin a. b. c. Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 2 If every packet forwarded twice “costs” of congestion: • more work (retrans) for given “goodput” • unneeded retransmissions: link carries multiple copies of pkt Transport Layer

  35. four senders multihop paths timeout/retransmit l l in in Host A Host B Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 3 Q:what happens as and increase ? lout lin : original data l'in : original data, plus retransmitted data finite shared output link buffers Transport Layer

  36. Host A Host B Causes/costs of congestion: scenario 3 lout Another “cost” of congestion: • when packet dropped, any “upstream” transmission capacity used for that packet was wasted! Transport Layer

  37. End-end congestion control: no explicit feedback from network congestion inferred from end-system observed loss, delay approach taken by TCP Network-assisted congestion control: routers provide feedback to end systems single bit indicating congestion (SNA, DECbit, TCP/IP ECN, ATM) Approaches towards congestion control Two broad approaches towards congestion control: Transport Layer

  38. 3.1 Transport-layer services 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing 3.3 Connectionless transport: UDP 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer 3.5 Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management 3.6 Principles of congestion control 3.7 TCP congestion control Chapter 3 outline Transport Layer

  39. end-end control (no network assistance) sender limits transmission: LastByteSent-LastByteAcked  CongWin Roughly, Why this formula? CongWin is dynamic, function of perceived network congestion How does sender perceive congestion? loss event = timeout or 3 duplicate acks TCP sender reduces rate (CongWin) after loss event three mechanisms: AIMD slow start conservative after timeout events CongWin rate = Bytes/sec RTT TCP Congestion Control Transport Layer

  40. multiplicative decrease: cut CongWin in half after loss event TCP AIMD additive increase: increase CongWin by 1 MSS every RTT in the absence of loss events: probing MSS: Maximum Segment Size Long-lived TCP connection Transport Layer

  41. When connection begins, CongWin = 1 MSS Example: MSS = 500 bytes & RTT = 200 msec initial rate = 20 kbps available bandwidth may be >> MSS/RTT desirable to quickly ramp up to respectable rate TCP Slow Start • When connection begins, increase rate exponentially fast until first loss event Transport Layer

  42. When connection begins, increase rate exponentially until first loss event: doubleCongWin every RTT done by incrementing CongWin for every ACKed segment Summary: initial rate is slow but ramps up exponentially fast time TCP Slow Start (more) Host A Host B one segment RTT two segments four segments Transport Layer

  43. Q: When should the exponential increase switch to linear? A: When CongWin gets to 1/2 of its value before timeout. Implementation: Variable Threshold At loss event, Threshold is set to 1/2 of CongWin just before loss event Refinement (more) Transport Layer

  44. After 3 dup ACKs: CongWin is cut in half window then grows linearly But after timeout event: CongWin instead set to 1 MSS; window then grows exponentially to a threshold, then grows linearly Refinement Philosophy: • 3 dup ACKs indicates network capable of delivering some segments • timeout before 3 dup ACKs is “more alarming” Transport Layer

  45. Summary: TCP Congestion Control (Reno) • When CongWin is below Threshold, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially. • When CongWin is above Threshold, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly. • When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin set to Threshold. • When timeout occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin is set to 1 MSS. Transport Layer

  46. Fairness goal: if K TCP sessions share same bottleneck link of bandwidth R, each should have average rate of R/K TCP connection 1 bottleneck router capacity R TCP connection 2 TCP Fairness Transport Layer

  47. Two competing sessions: Additive increase gives slope of 1, as throughout increases multiplicative decrease decreases throughput proportionally Why is TCP fair? equal bandwidth share R loss: decrease window by factor of 2 congestion avoidance: additive increase Connection 2 throughput loss: decrease window by factor of 2 congestion avoidance: additive increase Connection 1 throughput R Transport Layer

  48. Fairness and UDP Multimedia apps often do not use TCP do not want rate throttled by congestion control Instead use UDP: pump audio/video at constant rate, tolerate packet loss Research area: TCP friendly Fairness and parallel TCP connections nothing prevents app from opening parallel cnctions between 2 hosts. Web browsers do this Example: link of rate R supporting 9 cnctions; new app asks for 1 TCP, gets rate R/10 new app asks for 9 TCPs, gets R/2 ! Fairness (more) Transport Layer

  49. principles behind transport layer services: multiplexing, demultiplexing reliable data transfer flow control congestion control instantiation and implementation in the Internet UDP TCP Next: leaving the network “edge” (application, transport layers) into the network “core” Chapter 3: Summary Transport Layer