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Chapter 18 Conservation of Biodiversity. Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?. instrumental value goods and services intrinsic value. food medicine “ biopiracy ” timber recreation genetic information aesthetics. pollination clean water clean air climate modification.

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Chapter 18 Conservation of Biodiversity


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    1. Chapter 18 Conservation of Biodiversity

    2. Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? • instrumental value goods and services • intrinsic value

    3. food medicine “biopiracy” timber recreation genetic information aesthetics pollination clean water clean air climate modification Value of Biodiversity

    4. Nature’s Pharmacy Fig. 9-6, p. 189

    5. The 6th Mass Extinction • Extinction- when there are no longer any of the species in the world. • We are currently losing approximately 50,000 species per year.

    6. Estimating Extinction Rates • Species-area relationship • birds as indicators

    7. Problems Estimating Extinction Rates • Extinction not easily documented over time – how do we know when a species is extinct? • Many species remain unidentified – how many species are out there, yet to be discovered? • Is it valid to use species-area relationship for all habitats/ecosystems? • fragmentation and edge effect complicate the impact on biodiversity

    8. Genetic Diversity • Scientists want to conserve genetic diversity so that the species can survive environmental change and inbreeding will not occur. • Inbreeding occurs when individuals with similar genotypes, generally relatives, breed with each other.

    9. HIPCO • H- Habitat Loss • I- Invasive Species • P- Pollution • C- Climate Change • O- Overharvested

    10. Habitat Loss • For most species the greatest cause of decline and extinction is habitat loss. • Most habitat loss is due to human development

    11. Reduced Ranges Indian Tiger Range 100 years ago Range today (about 2,300 left) Fig. 9-8a, p. 191

    12. Reduced Ranges Black Rhino Range in 1700 Range today (about 2,400 left) Fig. 9-8b, p. 191

    13. Invasive Species • Alien species (exotic species)- species that live outside their historical range. • Invasive species- when alien species spread rapidly across large areas. • Ex- Kudzu Vine, Zebra Mussel, Silver Carp

    14. Deliberately Introduced Species Purple looselife European starling African honeybee (“Killer bee”) Nutria Salt cedar (Tamarisk) Marine toad Water hyacinth Japanese beetle Hydrilla European wild boar (Feral pig) Fig. 9-11a, p. 193

    15. Accidentally Introduced Species Sea lamprey (attached to lake trout) Argentina fire ant Brown tree snake Eurasian muffle Common pigeon (Rock dove) Formosan termite Zebra mussel Asian long-horned beetle Asian tiger mosquito Gypsy moth larvae Fig. 9-11b, p. 193

    16. Kudzu Fig. 9-12, p. 194

    17. Fire Ant Invasion 1918 2000 Fig. 9-13, p. 195

    18. Pollution • Threats to biodiversity can come from toxic contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, acids, and oil spills.

    19. Biomagnification of DDT DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys) 25 ppm DDT in large fish (needle fish) 2 ppm DDT in small fish (minnows) 0.5 ppm DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppm DDT in water 0.000003 ppm, or 3 ppt Fig. 9-16, p. 197

    20. Litter Kills Seals Fig. 9-19, p. 200

    21. Overharvesting • When individuals of a species are removed at a rate faster than the population can replace them. • Ex- dodo, American bison, passenger pigeon.

    22. Extinction Threats from Poaching • Profits of poaching • Causes of poaching: food, fur, pets, traditional medicines, trophies, eliminating pests, etc. • Bushmeat • Illegal pets and decorative plants

    23. Bushmeat Fig. 9-15, p. 196

    24. Confiscated Products From Endangered Species Fig. 9-18, p. 199