The Great Depression and The New Deal. Causes of the Great Depression. Problems in Industry. Consumer Spending. Problems in Farming. The Stock Market. Distribution of Wealth.
Problems in Industry
Problems in Farming
The Stock Market
Distribution of Wealth
The Great Depression lasted from October 1929 until the economic recovery of the 1940s. On October 29, Black Tuesday, the stock market crashed, and continued to fall throughout the coming weeks. As a result, the United States and the world were thrown into a decade of poverty and unemployment.
Businesses failed from a lack of investment support and a decline in the ability of the masses to afford their products.
Banks closed their doors as the nation's citizens hoarded their money and defaulted on loan payments.
Herbert Hoover was President at the onset of the depression. He believed in recovery, even in the face of worsening conditions.
Hoover believed the economy would right itself without government intervention.
The situation did not improve, and Hoover established a program to build the Boulder Dam.
But it was too little too late.
Hoover lost the Presidency to Franklin Roosevelt in the 1932election.
FDR quickly shifted from a policy of non-intervention to one of government regulation and relief.
During the first hundred days of his Presidency, FDR and his highly trusted advisors, known as the Brain Trust created the New Deal.
To restore public confidence in the government FDR introduced his “fireside chats.” These were radio talks where the President spoke directly to the public.
1. Relief for the Needy
2. Economic Recovery
One of the first acts was The Emergency Banking Relief Act.
1.What was the purpose of this act?
2.What was the “Bank Holiday”?
The Glass-Steagall Banking Act 1933 was one of the New Deal Reforms.
3.What was the purpose of this act?
4.What is FDIC?
The Federal Securities Act was another act passed in the early days of FDR’s administration.
5. Explain this program and how it still affects the stock market today?
By using implied power to expand the powers of the executive branch, FDR created a number of agencies to aid agriculture, business, and the unemployed.
Art. I Section 8 Clause 18
The “necessary and proper clause”
Numerous New Deal programs
were created. Most were known
by letters instead of by their
Many of these agencies were
designed to provide employment.
Agriculture Adjustment Act 1938
6.What was the purpose of this act ?
7.Was it successful, explain?
8.Why did some of AAA policies upset many Americans?
Public Works Administration
9.What was the purpose of this act ?
10.Give examples of the types of projects completed by PWA workers.
Civil Works Administration
11.Why was this program established? Give examples of construction completed by CWA.
12. What did its critics say about CWA?
Civilian Conservation Corps
13.Explain what this program provided.
Talladega National Forest was the site of CCC work camps.
CCC workers at
Fort Payne, AL
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
14.What was the purpose of FERA?
15.How were the funds used?
National Industrial Recovery Act 1933
16.What was the purpose of this act ?
17. What agency did NIRA establish?
18.What were some of the regulations established by this agency?
Home Owners Loan Corporation 1933
Federal Housing Administration 1934
19.Why were these programs established?
20. Which one still exists today?
Tennessee Valley Authority 1933
21.How was this program supposed to help people? Give examples.
22.Does this program still exist today? If so, what benefits does it provide?
In 1935 a number of Supreme Court rulings effectively dismantled the primary mechanisms of the New Deal.
The NIRA was ruled unconstitutional on the grounds that it gave the President and the federal government too much power.
Reelected in 1936, FDR called for a plan to increase the number of Justices on the Supreme Court from 9 to15. He could then appoint Justices who would support his programs.
FDR’s actions were viewed as an attempt to over ride the separation of powers established by the Constitution.
FDR and Congress had designed programs that benefited millions of Americans, but there were many who criticized the New Deal.
Rural Electrification 1935
23.What was the purpose of this program?
Gaining a public mandate with the Democratic successes in the 1934 midterm elections in the House and the Senate, FDR set forth the Second New Deal in 1935.
Steps were taken in attempts to solve the unemployment problem and stimulate economic recovery.
The legislation passed during this period would be the framework of the New Deal throughout the remainder of the decade.
National Youth Administration
The NYA provided work centers, vocational training, recreational jobs and workshops for everything from music to journalism.
Farm Securities Administration
Resettlement Admin. (later Farm Security Admin.) lent funds to small farmers to buy land instead of renting or sharecropping
Homeless family tenant farmers
What was the purpose of this act ? Was it successful, was it expanded, Did it have long lasting effects?
Give explanations and examples.
What was the purpose of this act ?
Was it successful, explain?
What was the purpose of this act ?
Was it successful, explain?
Works Progress Administration
provided jobs for many people, especially artists by commissioning them to create posters promoting events and informing the public of important issues.
FDR did get the Supreme Court majority that he wanted. One Justice changed his views and one retired. During his terms in office he appointed nine Justices. Only Washington appointed more.
The economy showed signs of recovery but was set back by the 1937 recession. Few additional measures were put in place to cope with the depression.
Economic recovery took place under the war economy of the early 1940s, with levels of poverty and unemployment returning to pre-depression levels.
The Depression brought marked changes to the political and entertainment culture of the United States. A culture of dissent and disillusionment produced ample political outlets, such as Huey Long's “Share Our Wealth” program. Popular culture was affected as well.
Radio shows, most were comedies and soap operas, took people's minds off their troubles.
Hollywood also flourished, as people flocked to the theatres to escape their everyday world of poverty and despair.
The Golden Age of Radio.
Brace Beemer, Lone Ranger, giving broadcast; McFredden Publication, photograph by R. E. Smallman.
In contrast, intellectuals and authors delivered a sharp dose of realism.
Many were directly critical of capitalism and supported political alternatives, such as socialism or communism.
The Great Depression produced a distinct political response that defined the Democratic Party throughout the twentieth century; some New Deal policies, such as Social Security, are now considered bedrock rights of American citizens.
Under FDR, a new conception of the federal government emerged, based on the belief in economic regulation and social welfare.
New Deal aids farmers