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Fundamental constants. Time Variation. and their. H. Fritzsch LMU / MPI Munich. Fundamental constants. Particles Nuclei Atoms Lasers Solid State Physics Astrophysics Cosmology. Outline.

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slide1

Fundamental

constants

Time Variation

and their

H. Fritzsch

LMU / MPI Munich

slide2

Fundamental constants

  • Particles
  • Nuclei
  • Atoms
  • Lasers
  • Solid State Physics
  • Astrophysics
  • Cosmology
slide3

Outline

Standard Model32 Fundamental ConstantsFine-structure ConstantOklo PhenomenonQuark MassesTime Variation of Fine-structure ConstantGrand UnificationPrediction for Quantum OpticsExperiment at MPQ

slide4

Particle Physics

gauge theories

slide5

1935

W. Heisenberg

W. Pauli

minimal interaction

hermann weyl
Hermann Weyl:

electromagnetic interaction has

local gauge symmetry

U(1) - phase rotations

QED

gauge theory

slide7

-

1950

Feynman

Schwinger

QED: renormalizable

non abelian gauge theory wolfgang pauli chen ning yang robert mills ronald shaw

1954

Non-Abelian Gauge TheoryWolfgang PauliChen Ning Yang – Robert MillsRonald Shaw

( ph.d. - student of Tom Kibble )

slide9

weak interactions

1957:

W-bosons

W

J. Schwinger

slide10

since 1964:

electroweak

gauge theory

slide11

SU(2)xU(1)

weak

interactions

electromagnetism

neutral current

CERN 1972

slide12

SU(2) x U(1)

Glashow, Salam - Ward, Weinberg

1964-1968

slide13

Strong Interactions

proton mass

masses of nuclei

slide16

1971

q=>

q

q

q

r

g

b

SU(3)

c

slide17

b

r

g

slide18

1972

QCD

Fritzsch Gell-Mann

slide20

1973:

Standard Model

SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1)

slide21

problem

===>

32

fundamental

constants

slide22

32 Fundamental constants

number of space dimensions 1number of time dimensions 1number of colors 1number of families 1Newtons constant G 1 fine structure constant 1coupling constant of strong interaction 1coupling constant of weak interaction 1mass of W boson 1mass of Higgs boson 1masses of 6 quarks and 6 leptons 12 flavor mixing of quarks 4flavor mixing of leptons 6

-

32

slide23

32

(22 related to fermion masses)

slide29

Cosmic accidents?

Universe

=> Multiverse

arnold sommerfeld 1916
Arnold Sommerfeld, 1916

fine-structure constant

slide32

fine-structure constant

=0.00729735253

~1/137

slide33

unifiying electrodynamics,

relativity,

quantum theory

slide34

Solvay

Sommerfeld

Planck, Lorentz, Curie, Rutherford, Poincare, Einstein

slide36

Leon Lederman

137 Eola Road

slide37

137

how little

we know

Feynman:

slide39

QED: Most successful theory in science. Merging of electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.Renormalizable theory, tested up to 1:10 000 000(Lamb shift, hyperfine splitting, magnetic moments)

slide40
Quantum Field Theory:

Finestructure constant becomes function of energy or scale due to quantum fluctuations of electron-positron pairs

=> partial screening of bare charge of the electron at distances less than the compton wavelength of the electron

slide41

partial screening

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

charge gets larger at high

energy

slide42

ALEPH

LEP / LHC

L3

Alice

CMS

SPS

ATLAS

OPAL

DELPHI

LHCb

LEP: e+e– Kollisionen 1989 – 2000

LHC: p–p Kollisionen ab 2007

Europäisches Zentrum für Teilchenphysik CERN / Genf

LEP

lep 1 127

LEP: ~ 1/127

agrees with theory

slide44

Oklo Phenomen

About 1.8 billion years ago, in Gabon, Westafrika.

Natural Reactor, which operated about 100 million years.

High concentration of uranium

3.7% U 235 at that time (today 0.72 %)

Moderator: water from river Oklo

slide47

Geological Situation in Gabon leading to natural nuclear fission reactors1. Nuclear reactor zones2. Sandstone3. Uranium ore layer4. Granite

slide48
Discovered in the 1970ties by french

nuclear physicists

It was found:

Uranium 235 less that the normal rate

Normally: 0.720 %

==further investigation

Natural reactor

shlyakhter dyson and damour 1996
Shlyakhter, Dyson and Damour (1996)

samarium

Neutron Capture

Sm(149) + n =>Sm(150) + gamma

cross section about 57 … 93 kb

very large cross section due to

nuclear resonance just above threshold: E=0.0973 eV

Resonance position cannot have changed much.

Change less than 0.1 eV

=> constraint on elm. interaction:

alpha(Oklo)-alpha(now)/alpha

<1/10 000 000

Dyson, Damour

slide50

-16

Change of alpha per year

must be less than

per year

(if no other parameters change)

==>constraint questionable

10

qcd mass from no mass dimensional transmutation anti screening of color infrared slavery

What is the nucleon mass?

QCD

Mass from „no-mass“

(dimensional transmutation)

„Anti-screening“ of color –

infrared slavery

S. Coleman

slide53

Mass from no-mass

1 /

dimensional transmutation

about 250 mev mass confined field energy
:about 250 MeVMass: confined field energy

Experiments:

Mass in QCD is fully understood -

dynamically generated

(not, however, the quark masses)

nucleon mass in limit of vanishing quark masses

Nucleon Mass in limit of vanishing quark masses:

const. calculable: error about 2% (Juelich)

Exp: 938.272 MeV

First calculation of a mass in physics

slide56
Nucleon Mass in QCD:

Nuleon mass: QCD mass and mass

contributions from the quark masses

QCD u d s QED

862 + 20 + 19 + 35 + 2

M(proton) =

slide57

Masses of W-Bosons are

generated by symmetry breaking

( B-E-G-H-H-K ) - Mechanism )

( Brout - Englert - Guralnik - Hagen - Higgs - Kibble )

slide58

Mass and Symmetry Breaking

Higgs particle

Fermi constant

slide59

renormalizable like QED

M. Veltman

G. tHooft

slide60

ALEPH

LEP / LHC

L3

Alice

CMS

SPS

ATLAS

OPAL

DELPHI

LHCb

LEP: e+e– Kollisionen 1989 – 2000

LHC: p–p Kollisionen ab 2007

Europäisches Zentrum für Teilchenphysik CERN / Genf

LHC

slide61

muon

H===> Z Z

LHC

Higgs particle

slide64

relations between lepton masses?

Bjorken:

observed: 0.00484

quark masses
Quark Masses:

relations between quark masses?

  • Observed:

m(c) : m(t) = m(u):m(c)

1/207 1/207

m(s):m(b) = m(d):m(s)

1/23 1/23

slide66

ln m

b

c

s

d

?

u

slide67

ln m

b

c

s

d

u

slide68

ln m

t

b

c

s

d

u

slide69

ln m

174 GeV

t

b

c

s

d

u

predicting t-mass (1987)

slide70

Fermilab 1995

m(t) = 174 GeV

slide71

ln m

tau

mu

e?

e

slide72

It is normally assumed in the Standard Model that the fundamental constants of nature are universal, i.e. the same everywhere and at all times.

why time variation
Why time variation?

Extra space dimensions

(e.g. in Superstring theories). Any change in size of these dimensions would manifest itself in the 3D world as variation of fundamental constants.

why time variation1
Why time variation?

Scalar fields .

Fundamental constants depend on scalar fields which vary in space and time. May be related to “dark energy” and accelerated expansion of the Universe.

slide76

Strong limits on time variation of constants, related to the stable matter:Newtons constant, fine structure constant, mass of electron, QCD scale

slide77
Weak limits for all constants, related to unstable particles( mass of myon, mass of s-quark, …, flavor mixing angles, mass of W-boson, …)
slide78

1686

Newtons

constant

of gravity

time variation of fundamental constants dirac 1930
Time Variation of fundamental constants:Dirac (~1930)

Time Variation of

Newtons constant G

slide81

Time Variation of Newtons constant G

of order

per year

(only recently excluded

by satellite experiments)

slide82

Time variation of natural constants?

Time Variation of alpha?

Observation of

fine structure of atomic levels

Quasars

5-7 billion years back

quasar absorption spectra
Quasar absorption spectra

Light

earth

gas

quasar

slide85

Experiment at Keck telescope

(Australia, England, USA)

Fine structure of Fe, Ni, Mg, Sn, A -

Quasars, back to 11 bn years in time

( Webb, Wolf, Flambaum...)

grand unification
Grand unification

SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1)

==>SO(10)

( Fritzsch - Minkowski; Georgi - 1975 )

slide88

SO(10)

SO(6) x SO(4)

SU(4) x SU(2,L) x SU(2,R)

SU(3) x SU(2,L) x U(1)

slide89

SO(10)

SO(6) x SO(4)

_

SU(4) x SU(2,L) x SU(2,R)

_

SU(3) x SU(2,L) x U(1)

_

electroweak theory su 2 x su 2 x u 1

In SO(10):

lefthanded and

righthanded neutrinos

Electroweak theory:SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1)

L

R

New energy scale for righthanded SU(2)

related to neutrino masses? - consistent with LEP unlike SU(5)

slide91

Grand Unification

3 coupling constants

elm., weak and strong int.

reduced to two parameters:

unif. scale and unified coupling

(one constant less)

slide93

-

without supersymmetry

-

with supersymmetry

GeV

-

slide94

SO(10)

Fermions in 16-plet

(incl. righthanded neutrinos)

slide95

Leptons and Quarks in SO(10)

Neutrinos

have a

mass

O(10)

slide96

1/coupling constant

Grand Unification

energy

=================

slide98

1/coupling constant

Grand Unification

energy

=================

slide99

1/coupling constant

Grand Unification

energy

=================

slide100

1/coupling constant

Grand Unification

energy

=================

slide101

1/coupling constant

Grand Unification

energy

=================

if the scale of unification does not change one finds
If the scale of unification does not change, one finds:

Calmet, Fritzsch - Langacker, Segre (2002)

slide105

change of

change of

no problem with constraint from Oklo

( effects can cancel )

slide107
Time: measured by Cesium clocks

Hyperfine transition, involving the magnetic moment of the cesium nucleus.

Would be affected by time change of QCD scale

Cesium: 9 192 631 770 Hz

(definition of time)

slide108

Comparison

Cs-clock

Hydrogen clock

Difference: 3 CS oscillations per day

Experiment at MPQ Munich

and NIST Boulder

(T. Hänsch, MPQ)

Nobel prize 2006

mpq experiment
MPQ-Experiment

486 nm dye laser in hydrogen

spectrometer

Reference: cesium clock Pharao LPTF Paris

Hydrogen: 1s-2s transition

2 466 061 413 187 127 (18) Hz

slide112
Simultaneous change

of the unified coupling constant and the unification scale?

slide113

1/coupling constant

Grand Unification

energy

=================

slide114
Partial Cancellation of the effect?

(expected in superstring models)

slide116
Indication for effect in the

new experiment at the MPQ:

(Hänsch, preliminary)

slide118
Reinhold et al. PRL 96 (2006)

2 quasars, 12 bn. years away

Looking for time variation of ratio proton mass / electron mass

One finds:

_________________

slide121
If true:

All masses of atomic nuclei will depend on time!

energy not strictly conserved

slide122
Summary

32 constants of nature

24 constants are mass parameters

Grand unification relates elm., strong and weak

interactions.

Time variation of alpha leads to time variation of the

QCD scale and of the weak interactions

MPQ Experiment rules out simplest model, but effect

seems to be there, about a factor 10 less than naively

expected, consistent mit observed variation of

electron-proton-massratio.

slide123
Necessary:

Both unification scale

and

unified coupling

must change in time.

(expected in superstring models)

slide124

QCD mass scale changes in time

===>

Masses of atomic nuclei

change in time

slide129

Every universe has

different fundamental constants