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Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 5. Objectives. Identify the opposing sides in the fight for ratification and describe the major arguments for and against the proposed Constitution. Describe the inauguration of the new government of the United States of America. . Key Terms.

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objectives
Objectives

Identify the opposing sides in the fight for ratification and describe the major arguments for and against the proposed Constitution.

Describe the inauguration of the new government of the United States of America.

key terms
Key Terms
  • Federalist: a person favoring ratification of the proposed U.S. Constitution
  • Anti-Federalist: a person opposing ratification of the proposed U.S. Constitution
introduction
Introduction

What issues aroused the vigorous debate over the ratification of the Constitution?

  • How strong should the central government be to avoid the problems faced under the Articles of Confederation?
  • Why didn’t the Constitution have a Bill of Rights, and was one really necessary?
  • Did Congress and the presidency have too much power?
a new government
A New Government
  • The Articles of Confederation could only be amended by a unanimous vote of all 13 states.
  • But the delegates at the Constitutional Convention decided to require only 9 of 13 states to ratify the Constitution.
    • They felt that a unanimous vote would be too difficult to achieve, and that the Articles were being replaced rather than amended.
  • Copies of the new Constitution were sent to the states on September 18, 1787.
federalists
Federalists
  • Supporters of ratification were called Federalists.
    • They argued that the Articles of Confederation were weak and needed to be replaced.
    • Alexander Hamilton was a leader among the Federalists

Alexander Hamilton

anti federalists
Anti-Federalists
  • Opponents of ratification were called Anti-Federalists.
    • They opposed the new ratification process.
    • They thought the new central government would be too strong.
    • Most of all, they argued that the Constitution needed a Bill of Rights to protect the people.
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • Why did the Framers not include a bill of rights in the original Constitution?
    • At first, Federalists said a Bill of Rights was not needed because:
      • The state constitutions already protected individual rights and freedoms.
      • The separation of powers among the three branches would keep the new national government from abusing its authority.
    • But Anti-Federalists opposition was so strong that Federalists eventually promised to add a Bill of Rights once the Constitution was ratified.
federalist writings
Federalist Writings
  • The Federalist Papers influenced many Americans to support the Constitution
    • These were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, all using the pen name, Publius.
    • They consisted of 85 political essays, written between 1787 and 1788, and were soon published across the nation.
    • These essays are still read widely today for their insights into the Constitution, the federal government, and the nature of representative democracy.
anti federalist writings
Anti-Federalist Writings
  • Anti-Federalists also wrote many essays, pamphlets, and letters
    • The essays by “Brutus” were most likely written by Robert Yates. They were first published in New York.
    • Richard Henry Lee of Virginia wrote a number of pamphlets and letters using the name “The Federal Farmer.”
  • Around the country, debate over ratification was fed by these various written works expressing strong views on both sides.
ratification debate
Ratification Debate
  • Ratification was swift in some states and bitterly contested in others.
  • Approval of the Constitution required ratification by nine states.
  • On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth ratifying state.
trouble with ratification
Trouble with Ratification
  • Even though 9 states had ratified the Constitution, without the support of the key states of New York and Virginia, the Constitution would fail.
    • In Virginia, James Madison, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson supported the Federalists against Anti-Federalists led by Patrick Henry, James Monroe, and George Mason.
    • New York was deadlocked until Alexander Hamilton helped turn the tide for the Federalists.
inauguration
Inauguration
  • The Confederation Congress chose New York City as the temporary capital of the United States.
  • The new U.S. Congress first met on March 4, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City.
inauguration cont
Inauguration, cont.
  • George Washington was chosen as the first President by a unanimous vote of electors.
  • He took office on April 30th. John Adams was vice president.
  • The rest is history!
review
Review
  • How does the Constitution reflect the times in which it was written?
what is apa
What is APA?
  • The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences.
  • APA regulates:
    • Stylistics
    • In-text citations
    • References
types of apa papers
Types of APA Papers
  • The literature review:
    • Contains a summary of what the scientific literature says about the topic of your research
    • Includes a title page, introduction, and list of references
  • The experimental report:
    • Describes your experimental research
    • Includes a title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, list of references, appendices, tables, and figures
general format
General Format

Your essay should:

  • be typed and double-spaced be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”)
  • use 1” margins on all sides
  • use 10-12 pt. Times New Roman or a similar font
  • include a page header (title) in the upper left-hand of every page and a page number in the upper right-hand side of every page
  • Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp. 87-88 in the APA manual).
general format1
General Format

References

Your essay should include four major sections:

Main Body

Abstract

Title page

title page
Title Page

Page header:

(use Insert Page Header)

title flush left + page number flush right.

Title:

(in the upper half of the page, centered)

name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)

abstract page
Abstract Page

Page header: do NOT include “Running head:”

Abstract: centered, at the top of the page

Write a 150- to 250- word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner.

references page
References Page
  • Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.
  • Double-space reference entries
  • Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines
  • Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames
in text citations formatting quotations
In-text Citations: Formatting Quotations

When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information.

Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).

A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).

in text citations formatting a summary or paraphrase
In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase
  • Provide the author’s last name and the year of
  • publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.
  • Though feminist studies focus solely on women's
  • experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).
in text citations formatting a summary or paraphrase1
In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase

Include the author’s name in a signal phrase followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.

Recently, the history of warfare has been

significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987),

Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects.

in text citations formatting a summary or paraphrase2
In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase

When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:

According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate

(1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's

responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).

in text citations a work with two authors
In-text Citations: A Work with Two Authors

When citing a work with two authors, use “and”

in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet “&” between their names in parenthesis.

According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate

(1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's

responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).

Some feminists researchers question that “women's

responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt &

Tate, 1997, p. 2).

in text citations a work with three to five authors
In-text Citations: A Work with Three to Five authors

When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.

(Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Harklau et al., 1993)

in text citations a work with six and more authors
In-text Citations: A Work with Six and More Authors

When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.”

Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….

(Smith et al., 2006)

in text citations a work of unknown author
In-text Citations: A Work of Unknown Author

When citing a work of unknown author, use the source’s full title in the signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters in quotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports.

According to “Indiana Joins Federal

Accountability System” (2008), …

Or,

(“Indiana,” 2008)

additional apa resources
Additional APA Resources
  • The Purdue OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu
  • Purdue Writing Lab @ HEAV 226
  • Composition textbooks
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
  • APA’s website http://www.apastyle.org