Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Three Methods of Philosophical Dialogue: differences and similarities between Nelson's Socratic Method , Lipman's P4C Method, McCall's CoPI Method
Background- Different Methods of Philosophical Dialogue Nelson’s Socratic Method 1904 GERMANY Lipman’s P4C method 1974 USA McCall’s CoPI method 1976 IRELAND SAPERE Community of Enquiry 1993 ENGLAND Murris’ Talking with Pictures 1992 NETHERLANDS Heeson’s Project 100 1995 NETHERLAND McCall’s Guided Socratic Discussion 2004 SCOTLAND Cleghorn’s COPE 2001 SCOTLAND Brenifier’s Asking Questions 200? FRANCE
3 Different Methodologies Nelson’s Socratic Method 1904 GERMANY McCall’s Philosophical Inquiry 1976 IRELAND Lipman’s P4C 1974 AMERICA
Underlying Philosophy – Nelson Neo-Kantian Philosophy Philosophic truth is found at the limits of human understanding, a ‘frame’ for understanding - like Kant’s Categories Regressive Method To reach philosophic truths a group uses regressive Socratic method of investigation until consensus is reached that one can go no further Nelson’s Socratic Method 1904 GERMANY
Underlying Philosophy- Lipman Dewey’s Pragmatic Philosophy ‘Truth’ is the product of successful , active manipulation of the world by people No epistemological metaphysical distinction P4C Method (From Dewey ) Inquiry is a construction Emphasis on democratic procedures Lipman’s P4C 1974 AMERICA
Underlying Philosophy – McCall Community of Philosophical Inquiry (CoPI) Method Assumes fallibism, uses logical principals to reveal inconsistency etc. Neo -Stoic Realism Realism – distinction between epistemology and metaphysics McCall’s COPI Method 1976 IRELAND
McCall’s CoPI Method 1976
CoPI Philosophical Dialogue with adults and with children First Developed in Dublin in 1975-6 with university students, then adapted for young children in 1984 - the CoPI Methodology is used with adults and children in identical manner
CoPI Philosophical Dialogue with adults and with children Example 1M.Phil postgraduate, Karine Polwart, chairs CoPIWith 7 -year -old children in Glasgow 1993
CoPI Philosophical Dialogue with adults and with children Example 2CoPI with 6- year -old children USA 1989 –90 10 minutes from 60 minutes BBC 1990 documentary Socrates for Six year Olds
CoPI Philosophical Dialogue with adults and with children Example 3CoPI with Adults Porto 2007
How Philosophical Theory is Instantiated in Practise -Nelson’s Socratic Method (1904) • Philosophic truth is found at the limits of human understanding, a ‘frame’ for understanding - like Kant’s Categories. • Therefore present in ALL human beings • So if one seeks these truths they should hold for everyone Neo-Kantian Philosophy Practice 1) Only actual lived experience can be investigated • Use a group of people 3) Continue philosophical analysis of underlying assumptions / principles until no –one disagrees.
How Philosophical Theory is Instantiated in Practise Lipman’s P4C (1974) & SAPERE Community of Enquiry (1993) Dewey's Pragmatic Philosophy Practise 1) ‘Truth’ is the product of successful , active manipulation of the world by people 2) No epistemological/metaphysical distinction 3) People negotiate and construct truth in relation to their experience of the world 4) Truth is a kind of heuristic relationship between a person and the world 1) Emphasis on democratic practise 3) Children negotiate the link between ideas and their own experience 4) Everyone’s experience and thinking is equally ‘valid’
How Philosophical Theory is Instantiated in Practise - McCall’s CoPI (1976) Neo -Stoic Realism Practise 1) Use philosophical analysis of philosophical assumptions / principles underlying actions, judgement, emotions etc. • Distinction between epistemology and metaphysics • 2) The world is distinct from our knowledge of the world • 3) The principle of contradiction holds in the world • 4) People are fallible – can ALL be wrong about the world 2) Use disagreement to elicit contradiction 3) Use logic 4) Use a group of people – there is more chance of revealing error with more minds.
Philosophical Dialogue and E-Learning Nelson’s Socratic Method • Slow • Stages of dialogue written down by Director • Emphasis on narrowing in on ‘meaning’ • Would transfer to E-Learning
Philosophical Dialogue and E-LearningLipman’s P4C Method • Often emphasises taking turns – lends itself e-learning • Democracy important so need a way to ensure that everyone participates – lends itself to e-learning • Different activities. Exercises as well as discussion. Can use interactive group Internet exercises – as seen in the SOPHIA PECA project in 1995 • Could transfer to E-learning
Philosophical Dialogue and E-LearningMcCall’s COPI Method • Fast • Mainly one activity – philosophical dialogue • Requires instant judgment by Chair • Chair needs to see expressions in eyes, body movement • Would not easily transfer to E-learning (see example 4)
CoPI Philosophical Dialogue with adults and with children • The CoPI Chair needs to be able to see all the children and adults in order to make instant judgements about: • Who to call in to the dialogue, • When to call them in to the dialogue • E.g In the 5 year olds dialogue – I need to be able to move to see Scott shaking his head and the exact expression on his face in order to be able to judge that he has a different philosophical point to make, and to pull that point into the dialogue
CoPI Philosophical Dialogue with adults and with children Example 4Edited CoPI with 5- year -old children USA 1988