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A Tour Of The Solar System. Galaxies. Galaxies are huge regions of space that contain the stars, planets, and other astronomical features They can have many shapes Spiral Elliptical Irregular Our galaxy is known as the milky way galaxy

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Galaxies
Galaxies

  • Galaxies are huge regions of space that contain the stars, planets, and other astronomical features

  • They can have many shapes

    • Spiral

    • Elliptical

    • Irregular

  • Our galaxy is known as the milky way galaxy

  • Http://www.astro.Princeton.edu/~frei/Gcat_htm/cat_ims.htm


Milky way galaxy
Milky Way Galaxy

  • 80,000 light years across

  • Spiral shaped with 4 arms

  • We are located in the Orion arm

  • Nearest neighbor is Andromeda (2.2 Million light years)



Origin of the solar system
Origin of the Solar System

  • The solar system began as nothing more than dust

  • Gravity caused the dust to condense and spin

  • As the cloud gets hotter and denser fusion takes place

  • The fusion results in the birth of a star


Proto planetary disc
Proto – Planetary Disc

  • As our star, the sun, is being formed it is surrounded by a disc of debris and gas

  • These particles interact and accumulate to form the plants

  • When the sun forms it emits solar wind

  • This wind pushes lighter material outward (the gases)


The sun
The Sun

  • One of more than 100 billion in our galaxy

  • Rotates about the nucleus at about 137 miles/sec

  • Takes about 200 million years to complete a rotation

  • Accounts for 99.8% of the mass of our solar system


The sun cont
The Sun Cont.

  • The sun is the center of the solar system

  • Because it is so massive all of the planets are captured in its gravity field and orbit it

  • Composed of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium

  • The core is about 15.6 million Kelvin

  • The surface, photosphere, is about 5800 K


The planets
The Planets

  • There are 9 planets that orbit the sun

  • The orbit is in an elliptical path

  • The plane along which the planets orbit is known as the ecliptic


The earth
The Earth

  • 3rd rock from the sun (5th largest)

  • 149,600,000 km from the sun

  • Rotation: 23 hr 56 min

  • Orbit: 365.26 days

  • Mass: 5.97 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 1.0

  • Obliquity: 23.5 degrees


Formation of the earth
Formation of the Earth

  • The earth was formed from accreted particles in the proto-planetary disc about 4.6 Ga

  • As the material was accreted it began to differentiate (responsible for internal layering)

  • The denser material sank towards the center (iron core)

  • Lighter material rose towards the top (crust)


Seasons
Seasons

  • The earth spins about an axis that is at an angle of 23 degrees with the ecliptic

  • This angle causes different regions of the earth to experience variable amounts of sunlight throughout the year


Earth s magnetic field
Earth’s Magnetic Field

  • The liquid outer core of the earth is in a state of convection

  • This convection is responsible for a magnetic field about the earth

  • The magnetic field of the earth resembles that of a bar magnet

  • Solar wind from the sun interacts with the magnetic field to create the northern lights



Earth s oceans and atmosphere

The earth is distinguishable from the other terrestrial planets because of its surface water

Water accounts for 71% of the earth’s surface

The earth’s atmosphere is 77% nitrogen and 21% oxygen

The atmosphere helps block out harmful rays and maintains the surface temperature

Earth’s Oceans and Atmosphere


The moon
The Moon planets because of its surface water

  • Earth’s only satellite

  • 384,000 km from earth

  • 1738 km radius

  • Mass: 0.07 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 0.16

  • Orbit: 27.32 days

  • Rotation: 27.32 days

  • 4.4 Ga old

  • No:

    • Magnetic field

    • Oceans

    • Plate tectonics

    • Atmosphere


Moon formation
Moon Formation planets because of its surface water

  • During the earth’s formation a large object collided with the earth

  • The ejected material is the moon

  • Differentiation was already in process so the moon is composed of the lighter external materials (largely basalts)


Moon s surface
Moon’s Surface planets because of its surface water

  • The surface of the moon is composed largely of basalts

  • The major surface feature are craters from meteoroid impacts

  • Evidence of lava flows exist for impact craters greater than 100 km


The moon s rotation
The Moon’s Rotation planets because of its surface water

  • The rotation of the moon is the same as the orbit.

  • This implies that we always see the same side of the moon.

  • The phase of the moon that we see depends on the moon’s location relative to the sun


Mercury
Mercury planets because of its surface water

  • Closest planet to the sun (58 million km)

  • Second smallest planet 2,439 km radius

  • Mass: .33 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 0.38

  • Orbit: 87.96 days

  • Rotation: 58.65 days


Mercury rotation
Mercury Rotation planets because of its surface water

  • Mercury rotates 1.5 times per each orbit

  • This 3:2 ratio causes the mercury day to be extremely long (176 earth days)

  • During the day the surface can get as hot as 700 K

  • During the night the surface cools to 100 K


Mercury surface
Mercury Surface planets because of its surface water

  • Dominated by craters and basins

    • Cratering took place early (ended 3.8 Ga)

  • Largest basin: Caloris Planitia

    • 1300 km diameter

  • Plains regions also exist

    • Evidence of lava flows

  • Scarps are other surface features

    • Evidence of contraction


Mercury s interior
Mercury’s Interior planets because of its surface water

  • Despite its small size, mercury is very dense

  • Implies internal composition must be iron

  • Presence of a magnetic field (1% of earth’s) confirmed this

  • To account for magnetic field and density, mercury is 70% metal and 30% silicates

  • Believed that a large impact after differentiation ejected most of the silicate material


Water atmosphere

No surface water exist on the surface of mercury planets because of its surface water

Potentially ice located in craters that see little sun (polar regions)

Possesses a thin atmosphere

Atmosphere is surface material lifted by solar wind interaction

Water / Atmosphere


Venus
Venus planets because of its surface water

  • 2nd planet from the sun (108 million km)

  • Radius: 6,052 km

  • Mass: 4.87 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 0.76

  • Orbit: 224.7 days

  • Rotation: 243 days


Atmosphere
Atmosphere planets because of its surface water

  • Very thick cloud cover

  • Atmosphere composed mostly of carbon dioxide

  • Clouds composed of sulfuric acid

  • Effect is a runaway greenhouse

  • Surface pressure: 90 atm (the same as 1 km depth in earth’s oceans)

  • Surface temperature: 700 K


Venusian surface
Venusian Surface planets because of its surface water

  • Very dry

  • Young (500 my)

  • Mostly lava plains

  • Two regions of major relief

    • Ishtar terra (polar)

    • Aphrodite terra (equatorial)

  • Few impact craters

  • Volcanic features


Venus interior
Venus Interior planets because of its surface water

  • Venus is very similar to earth in size, mass, and distance

  • Implies similar interior structure

  • The core of Venus is still hot from formation and radioactive materials

  • Implies the mantle convects


Plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics? planets because of its surface water

  • Although Venus is currently inactive, did plate tectonics exist in the past?

  • Young surface age believed to be result of global overturn.

  • The overturn marks the transition from a mobile lithosphere to a stagnant lithosphere.


Venus rotation
Venus Rotation planets because of its surface water

  • The obliquity of Venus is nearly 180 degrees.

  • The effect of this is a retrograde rotation.

  • On Venus it would appear as if the sun rose in west and sat in the east.


A tour of the solar system
Mars planets because of its surface water

  • 4th planet from the sun (228 million km)

  • Radius: 3393 km

  • Mass: 0.64 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 0.39

  • Orbit: 686.98 days

  • Rotation: 24 hrs 37 min


Mar s rotation atmosphere

Mars has an axial tilt of 25 planets because of its surface water.

Orbital period is nearly twice that of the earth’s so seasons are nearly twice as long.

Tilt and highly elliptical orbit results in temperature variations from 140 K to 300 K.

The atmosphere of mars is very thin

Composed primarily of CO2

Seasonal dust storms results in a lot of dust in the atmosphere

Small % of water in atmosphere can produce clouds

Mar’s Rotation / Atmosphere


Martian atmosphere
Martian Atmosphere planets because of its surface water


Martian surface

Features include: planets because of its surface water

Shield volcanoes:

Olympus Mons (24 km high and 550 km wide)

Patera:

Shield volcanoes that do not rise very high but extend for great distances.

Channels:

Valles Marineris (3000 km long, 8 km deep, and 600 km wide)

Southern hemisphere heavily cratered while northern hemisphere is not

Inactive

Martian Surface


Water
Water? planets because of its surface water

  • Mars contains polar caps

  • Channels suggest water at some point in the martian history

  • Current hypothesis:

    • Water is located beneath the surface (much like permafrost on earth)


Martian interior
Martian Interior planets because of its surface water

  • Smaller so had longer time to cool

  • Less dense so core probably has sulfer and iron composition

  • Core is 1700 km thick

  • Mantle: 1300 km

  • Crust: 80 km


Is there life on mars
Is There Life on Mars? planets because of its surface water

  • Popular notion since Lowell

  • Believed that seasonal color changes were evidence of vegetation and channels were man made

  • Recent findings indicate some biological activity


Moons of mars
Moons Of Mars planets because of its surface water

  • Two moons: Deimos and Phobos

  • Both carbon rich but low density suggest both contain ice as well

  • Probably astroids captured by mars gravity

  • Deimos smallest moon in solar system (6.3 km radius)

  • Phobos: 11 km radius but only 6000 km above surface


Jupiter
Jupiter planets because of its surface water

  • 5th planet from the sun (778.3 million km)

  • Radius: 71,398 km

  • Mass: 1900 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 2.74

  • Orbit: 4,333 days

  • Rotation: 9 hrs 50.5 min


Jupiter composition
Jupiter Composition planets because of its surface water

  • Likely to have a rocky core (10 - 15 x the mass of the earth)

  • Above the core there exist liquid metallic hydrogen

    • Only exist at pressures > 4 million bars

    • Consist of ionized protons and electrons (source of magnetic field)

  • Outermost layer is regular hydrogen and helium

  • We actually observe the clouds of Jupiter


Jupiter s clouds
Jupiter’s Clouds planets because of its surface water

  • Variable composition consisting of:

    • Ammonia ice

    • Ammonia hydrosulfide

    • Water and ice

  • Confined to bands of latitude that rotate in opposite directions

  • Most prominent feature is the GRS

    • High pressure zone (rises higher than surrounding clouds)


Jupiter s rings
Jupiter’s Rings planets because of its surface water

  • Voyager discovered in 1971

  • Contains no ice

  • Very thin and dark

  • Composed of rocky material probably from the inner four moons

  • Constantly replenished since atmospheric and magnetic field deplete them


Jupiter s moons
Jupiter’s Moons planets because of its surface water

  • At least 16

  • 4 largest (Galilean):

    • Callisto

    • Io

    • Ganymede

    • Europa

  • 4 inner moons:

    • Thebe

    • Metis

    • Andrastea

    • Amalthea


A tour of the solar system
Io planets because of its surface water

  • It is the center of a tug-a-war between Ganymede, Europa, and Jupiter

  • The effect is intense tidal volcanic activity

  • Surface temperature is low (-143 C)

  • Has a solid core surrounded by a rocky shell of silicate? Composition


Europa
Europa planets because of its surface water

  • Europa consist of a metallic core, a silicate rock layer, and water.

  • The outer ice shell of Europa is crisscrossed by dark bands.

  • Beneath the ice shell there is potentially large oceans.

  • Water exist because of tidal heating.


Saturn
Saturn planets because of its surface water

  • 6th planet from the sun (1427 million km)

  • Radius: 60,000 km

  • Mass: 569 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 1.17

  • Orbit: 10,579 days

  • Rotation: 10 hrs 14 min


Saturn composition
Saturn Composition planets because of its surface water

  • Saturn’s interior is similar to Jupiter’s.

    • Rocky core, metallic hydrogen, hydrogen, helium, trace elements

  • Density less than that of water

  • Also possesses cloud cover

  • Clouds trapped in bands of latitude that rotate at variable speeds

    • Fastest at the equator


Ring system of saturn
Ring System of Saturn planets because of its surface water


Ring system of saturn1
Ring System of Saturn planets because of its surface water

  • Most interesting feature

  • Very thin (1.5 km thick) despite large diameter (250,000 km)

  • Composition is largely ice and rocky particles coated with ice

  • Broken into different regions

  • Origin unknown but must have some mechanism to replinish

    • Resonance of moons


Moons of saturn
Moons of Saturn planets because of its surface water

  • 18 to date

  • All have densities less than 2 gm/cm3

    • 30 – 40% rock

    • 60 – 70% ice

  • Most interact with one another to produce stable and synchronous orbits

  • Titan is by far the largest with a radius of 2575 km

    • Once believed to be bigger but enormous atmosphere threw off calculations


Uranus
Uranus planets because of its surface water

  • 7th planet from the sun (2871 million km)

  • Radius: 25,559 km

  • Mass: 87 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 0.94

  • Orbit: 30,685 days

  • Rotation: 17 hrs 14 min


Neptune
Neptune planets because of its surface water

  • 8th planet from the sun (4497 million km)

  • Radius: 24,800 km

  • Mass: 103 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 1.15

  • Orbit: 60,188 days

  • Rotation: 16 hrs 3 min


Composition
Composition planets because of its surface water

  • Small rocky cores (3% of their mass)

  • Thick layer of rock and ice (85% of their mass)

    • Most likely in a liquid state (mud)

  • Atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, and trace materials

  • Similar to Jupiter and Saturn without the liquid metallic hydrogen


Atmosphere1
Atmosphere planets because of its surface water

  • The striking blue color of these two planets is due to methane gas

    • Methane absorbs red light and reflects blue

  • Majority of the atmosphere is hydrogen and helium

  • Cloud features are more prominent on Neptune

  • Neptune once contained GDS (half the size of the GRS)


Axial tilt
Axial Tilt planets because of its surface water

  • Neptune: 29; Uranus: 98

  • As a result both planets experience seasons

  • On Uranus the polar regions receive more sunlight yet equatorial regions are hotter

  • Lack of storms on Uranus as compared to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune believed to be b/c of orientation


Rings
Rings planets because of its surface water

  • Both planets possess rings

  • Like Jupiter they are dark (charcoal color)

  • Compositon is unknown

  • Uranus:

    • 11 distinct regions

  • Neptune:

    • 4 distinct regions


Uranus satellites
Uranus Satellites planets because of its surface water

  • Contains the most moons (24)

  • Named after the writings of Shakespeare and pope

  • 3 classes:

    • 11 small dark inner ones

    • 5 large ones

    • Outer new ones

  • Largest is Titania (789 km)


Neptune satellites

8 known moons planets because of its surface water

Largest of which is Trition (1350 km)

Naiad

 Thalassa

 Despina

 Galatea

 Larissa

 Proteus

 Trition

 Nereid

Neptune Satellites


Pluto
Pluto planets because of its surface water

  • 9th planet from the sun (5913 million km)

  • Radius: 1,140 km

  • Mass: 0.01 x 1024 kg

  • Gravity: 0.03

  • Orbit: 90,700 days

  • Rotation: 6.387 days


Orbit
Orbit planets because of its surface water

  • The orbit of Pluto is very eccentric

  • During 20 of its 249 year orbit it is closer to the sun than Neptune

  • Pluto and Charon have the same rotation period


Composition1
Composition planets because of its surface water

  • Average density is 1.8 – 2.1 g/cm3

    • Implies 50 – 75% rock

  • Charon: 1.2 – 1.3 g/cm3

  • Icy surface composed of:

    • 98% nitrogen

    • Traces of methane and carbon monoxide

  • Atmosphere is thin, constantly freezes, and falls to the surface


Asteroids and comets
Asteroids and Comets planets because of its surface water

  • Believed to be remnants of primordial planets that were destroyed or never formed.

  • Therefore, they provide detailed information about past conditions.

  • Believed to originate in two locations.

    • Asteroid belt and Kuiper belt, respectively.


Compositions

Asteroids: planets because of its surface water

C-type: (75%) same composition as sun minus hydrogen and helium

S-type: (17%) nickel-iron mixed with iron and magnesium silicates

M-type: (8%) pure nickel-iron

Comets:

Mixture of non-volatile grains and frozen gases

Compositions


Web sources
Web Sources planets because of its surface water

  • Amazing space web based activities

    • Interactive games and lessons

    • Http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/

  • BrainPop

    • Great movie

    • Http://www.brainpop.Com/science/space/solarsystem/

  • Build a solar system

    • How to build a scaled solar system

    • Http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/solar_system/

  • NASA’s Observatorium

    • Games

    • Http://observe.ivv.nasa.Gov/nasa/fun/fun_index.shtml.Html

  • Space and astronomy

    • Lessons

    • http://www.athena.ivv.nasa.gov/curric/space/


Web sources1
Web Sources planets because of its surface water

  • Galaxy Catalogue

    • Images of various galaxies

    • http://www.astro.princeton.edu/~frei/Gcat_htm/cat_ims.htm

  • Nine Planets

    • Lessons on the nine planets

    • http://www.seds.org/nineplanets/nineplanets/nineplanets.html

  • Seasons

    • Experiment to show cause of seasons

    • http://faldo.atmos.uiuc.edu/w_unit/LESSONS/seasons.html

  • Virtual Solar System

    • Lessons

    • http://freespace.virginnet.co.uk/solar.system/index.html

  • Views of the Solar System

    • Bio and pictures of the planets

    • http://www.hawastsoc.org/solar/eng/homepage.htm