COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH. Presented By Kausar Manzoor Roll No. F13-3095 Ayesha Nawaz Roll No. F13-3303 Farukh Shah Roll No. F13-3018 Aneela Saleem Roll No. F13-3094. INTRODUCTION
COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH • Presented By • KausarManzoor • Roll No. F13-3095 • Ayesha Nawaz • Roll No. F13-3303 • Farukh Shah • Roll No. F13-3018 • AneelaSaleem • Roll No. F13-3094
INTRODUCTION Communicative language teaching (CLT) is generally regarded as an approach to language teaching (Richards and Rodgers 2001). As such CLT reflects a certain model or research paradigm, or a theory (Celce- Murcia 2001). It is based on the theory that the primary function of language use is communication. Its primary goal is for learners to develop communicative competence (Hymes 1971), or simply put, communicative ability. In other words, its goal is to make use of real-life situations that necessitate communication .
The Goals of Language Teaching Language teaching sets as its goal the teaching of communicative competence. What does this term mean? Perhaps we can clarify the term by first comparing it with the concept of grammatical competence.
Grammaticalcompetence refers to the knowledge we have of a language that accounts for our ability to produce sentences in a language. It refers to knowledge of the building blocks of sentences (e.gCommunicative parts of speech, tenses, phrases, clauses, sentence patterns) and how sentences are formed.
Communicative competence includes the following aspects of language knowledge: Knowing how to use language for a range of different purposes and functions, Knowing how to vary our use of language according to the setting and the participants (e.g., knowing when to use formal and informal speech or when to use language appropriately for written as opposed to spoken communication) Knowing how to produce and understand different types of texts (e.g., narratives, reports, interviews, conversations).
Consider the following sentences that are all requests for someone to open a door. Imagine that the context is normal communication between two friends. Check if you think conform the rules of grammatical competence (GC),the Communicative competence (CC), or both. GC CC Please to opens door. I want the door to be opened by you
IMPLEMENTATION AND PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH Communicative language teaching is a set of principles about the goals of language teaching, how learners learn a language. Let us examine each of these principles one by one.
Principle 1: Use Tasks as an Organizational Principle Communicative language teaching is task based..Norris et al. (1998), “the best way to learn and teach a language is through social interactions”. Allow students to work toward a clear goal, share information and opinions, negotiate meaning and receive feedback on their language production.
TASK CAN BE Filling out a form, buying a pair of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing a library book, typing a letter, writing a check etc.
Principle 2: Promote Learning by Practice learners can try out new rules and modify them accordingly. According to Omaggio-Hadley (2001), learners should be encouraged to express their own meaning as early as possible. Allow oral practice either in chorus, group or individually. Because drilling makes the learner’s linguistic knowledge automatic.
Principle 3: Input Needs to Be Rich Communicative approach is based on rich input. As Doughty and Long (2003) put it, rich input entails “realistic samples of discourse use surrounding native speaker and non native speaker accomplishments of targeted tasks” (p. 61). In teaching a foreign language it can be achieved whether from the teacher, from multimedia resources (TV,DVDs, video and audio tapes, radio, online), from other students, or any other source.
Principle 4: Input Needs to Be Meaningful, Comprehensible, and Elaborated The informationwe process/present must be meaningful and relatable to existing knowledge that the learneralready possesses. This existing knowledge must be organized in such a way that the new information is easily assimilated, or “attached,” to thelearner’s cognitive structure (Ausubel 1968). Visual representations, repetitions, slower speech rate, and occasional use of English can be helpful.
Principle 5: Promote Cooperative and Collaborative Learning In general education, cooperative or collaborative learning has long beenrecognized as a strong facilitator of learning (e.g., see Kagan 1989). Insuch an approach, classrooms are organized so that students worktogether in small cooperative teams, such as groups or pairs, to complete activities. In second language learning environments, students work cooperatively on a language-learning task or collaboratively by achieving the goal through communicative use of the target language.
Principle 6: Focus on Form To make grammar explicit or whether to have the learners figure out the rules themselves. Teaching emphasizes on form meaning connection and teaches grammar within contexts and through communicative tasks.
Principle 7: Provide Error Corrective Feedback Here are two kinds of feedback in this approach. positive feedback that confirms the correctness of a student’s response. Teachers demonstrate this behaviour by agreeing, praising, or showing understanding. Negative feedback, generally known as error correction (see Chaudron 1988), which has a corrective function on a student’sfaulty language behaviour. As learners produce language, such evaluative feedback can be useful in facilitating the progression of their skills.
Principle 8: Recognize and Respect Affective Factors of Learning Here is a relationship between language attitudes, motivation, performance anxiety, and achievement in Second language learning. All teachers experience how learners feel about the target language or how their attitudes toward it impact their motivation and success. As Gardner and McIntyre (1993) says, a learner who is motivated “wantsto achieve a particular goal, devotes considerable effort to achieve thisgoal, and experiences in the activities associated with achieving this goal” (p. 2).
In applying these principles in the classroom, new classroom techniquesand activities are needed, new roles for teachersand learners in the classroom are also needed. Instead of making use of activities that are demanded accurate repetition and memorization of sentences and grammatical patterns, activities that required learners to negotiate meaning and to interact meaningfully are required.
Techniques • Authentic Materials: To overcome the typical problem that students can’t transfer what they learn in the classroom to the outside world And to expose students to natural language in a variety of situations, Adherents of the Communicative Approach advocate the use of authentic language materials.
With high level( intermediate level students) • Use a copy of a genuine newspaper article. • Books • Listen to a live radio • Television broadcast etc. • Reports • Interviews
With lower proficiency level students in the target language • It may not be possible to use authentic materials mentioned previously. • Simpler authentic materials e.g (the use of a weather forecast when working on predictions) • Use realia that do not contain lot of language, but about which lot of discussion could be generated. • Menus in the target language (opinion sharing activities) • Timetables • Information transfer activities
Scrambled Sentences • Give students a passage in which the sentences are in a jumbled order. • Ask them to unscramble the sentences so that the sentences are restored to their original order. • This type of exercise helps students about the cohesion and coherence. • Students might also be asked to unscramble the lines of a mixed-up dialogue. • Or to put the pictures of a picture strip story in order and write lines to accompany the pictures.
Language Games • Students learn a language by using it rather than through studying how language works. • Games are used frequently in the communicative approach. • The students find them enjoyable if they are properly designed , • They give students valuable communicative practice. • Student’s motivational level is likely to increase. • They will have the chance to develop fluency.
Classroom activities should be meaningful and involve real communication. • Activities that are truly communicative, according to Morrow,(in Johnson and Morrow 1981), have three features: • Information Gap • Choice • Feedback
Information Gap: An information gap exists when one person in an exchange knows something that the other person doesn’t. If we both know today is Tuesday and I ask you, What is today? And your answer is ,Tuesday”. Our exchange isn’t really communicative. Information gap refers to the fact that in real communication people normally communicate in order to get information they do not possess.
2) Choice: In communication, the speakers has a choice of what she will say and how she will say it. If the exercise is tightly controlled so that students can only say something in one way, the speaker has no choice and the exchange ,therefore, is not communicative.
In a chain drill, e.g if a student must reply to her neighbor’s question in the same way as her neighbor replied to someone else’s question, then she has no choice of form and content, and real communication does not occur.
Feedback: • True communication is purposeful. • A speaker can thus evaluate whether or not her purpose has been achieved based upon the information she receives from her listener. • If the listener does not have the opportunity to provide the speaker with such feedback, then the exchange is not really communicative.
Forming questions through a transformation drill may be a worthwhile activity , • but it is not communicative , • since a speaker will receive no response from a listener. • She is thus unable to assess whether her question has been understood or not.
Picture Strip Story • One students will be given a strip story. She would show the first picture of the story to the other members of the group and asked them to predict what the second picture would look like . • An information gap existed –the students in the group did not know what the picture contained. • They had a choice as to what their prediction would be and how they would word it. • They receive feedback , not on the form but on the content of the prediction by being able to view the picture and compare it with their prediction. • This gives students practice in negotiating meaning.
Jigsaw Activity • It is also based on the information gap. • The class is divided into groups and each group has part of the information needed to complete an activity. • The class must fit the pieces together to complete the whole. • They must use the language to communicate with each other.
Role-play • Role play are very important in the Communicative Approach because they give students an opportunity in practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles. • The teacher tells the students who they are and what the situation is and what they are talking about but the students determine what they will say
Teacher’s role? The teacher has these main roles: • The teachers is facilitator and also expected to act as a resource, an organizer of resources, a motivator, a counselor, a guide and an analyst. There are many other minor roles of a teacher, some of these would include being an actor and an entertainer. After all, a good lesson must be interesting or the students will ‘switch off’ and learn nothing.
Salient Features of Communicative Approach • The major purpose of communicative approach is to make the learner effective speakers. • All the four skills are given due importance to raise the confidence of the learner.
Communication can be divided into two categories • Input • Output The four communicative skills can be put into these categories
The students become active because they are engaged to different activities. CLT provides vitality and motivation
CLT is a holistic appraoch. It doesn’t focus only on the traditional structural syllabus. It takes into consideration communicative dimension of language. • CLT is a learner centered approach. It capitalizes on the interests and needs of the learner. • In a world where communication of information and information technology have broken new considerable ground, CLT can play an important role in education.
Taylor (1983) lists five characteristics: • 1- Students should participate in extended discourse in real context. • 2- They should share information that the others do not know. • 3-They should have choices about what they are going to say and how they are going to say it. • 4- They should communicate with a define purpose in mind. • 5- They should talk about real topics in real situations.
Criticism on CLT • The various categories of language functions are overlapping and not systematically graded like the structures of the language. • The communicative approach focuses on the use of language in everyday situations, or the functional aspects of language, and less on the formal structures. There must be a certain balance between the two. It gives priority to meanings and rules of use rather than to grammar and rules of structure. Such concentration on language behavior may result in negative consequences in the sense that important structures and rules would be left out.
A major principle underlying this approach is its emphasis on learners’ needs and interests. This implies that every teacher should modify the syllabus to fit the needs of the learners. • The requirements are difficult. Not all classrooms can allow for group work activities and for teaching aids and materials.
Conclusion We should now understand that the teacher's job is to get their students to communicate using real language by providing them with instruction, practice, and above all opportunities to produce English in activities which encourage acquisition and fluency.
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