MEMS For Wireless Communication Systems and Sensors Dimitrios Peroulis (RF MEMS),Rashid Bashir (Bio-MEMS) email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Purdue University November 19, 2004
MEMS = Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems MEMS: An Enabling Technology Microfluidics Pneumatics Optical MEMS Bio-MEMS RF MEMS Purdue microfluidic channel UCLA microgripper Rockwell Switch Berkeley micromirror UC Irvine CD-lab on a chip ALSO KNOWN AS: Microsystems Technology (Europe) Micromachines (Japan)
ANTENNAS • Frequency agile • Self-adaptive FILTERS • Reconfigurable • High-isolation SWITCHES • Compact • Low-power MEMS For High Frequency Circuits RF MEMS technology offers unique advantages in minimizing size and cost. Very low power requirements (W) Very low insertion loss (0.02 0.2 dB) Very high linearity (passive devices) Very compact designs (mm – nm) RF MEMS fabrication is compatible with existing IC techniques.
Why are MEMS Switches Unreliable? Switches today suffer from: Contact area wear and damage Poor power handling (< 1W) Hot switching not possible Dielectric charging Degradation in vacuum conditions Mechanical Stress and Creep in high/low Temp. Lack of affordable and reliable packaging
A More Careful Look on Reliability… RF MEMS http://www.Intellisensesoftware.com
What Can Be Done? Eliminate All Contacts!!
Optimized Varactor TESTS PERFORMED IN AN OPEN LAB AREA WITH NO PACKAGE OR NITROGEN
Hot-Tuning Range After 100 millions Initially After 100 million cycles No other MEMS Device’s performance comes close these measurements!
Proteins Viruses Cells DNA Molecules Integrated Bio Chips For Detection • Applications • Medicine • Pharmaceuticals • Food Safety • Homeland Security, etc. • Integrated, Sensitive, Rapid, Cost x Performance • Commercialized; Nanogen, Affymetrix, Caliper, Others….
R. Gomez, et al., Biomedical Micro-Devices, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 201-209, 2001. R. Gomez, et al., Sensors and Actuators, B, 86, 198-208, 2002. 700µm Nano-Mechanical Sensors (Vibration) R. Gomez, Y-S. Liu, D. Morisette, D. Akin, A. Bhunia, M. Ladisch, R. Bashir • Detection of cell viability by measuring their metabolic activity in micro-fluidic devices • As low as ~ 10-50 cells can be currently analyzed – goal is single cell! • Applications in food, pharmaceuticals, health, and diagnostics markets!!
Δf=60kHz f1 = 1.21 MHz f0 = 1.27 MHz Q ~ 5 k = 0.006 N/m Nano-Mechanical Sensors (Vibration) SEM of cantilever beam (30nm x 1.5um x 4um) with a single vaccinia virus particle on the surface A. Gupta, D. Akin, R. Bashir Objectives: To develop technology for the rapid detection of virus particles in air Concept Device Schematic Frequency Shift, Δf = 60 kHz • Mass change, Δm = 9 fg • This corresponds 1 vaccinia virus. Gupta, D. Akin, R. Bashir, “Single virus particle mass detection using microresonators with nanoscale thickness”, Vol. 84, No. 10, pp. 8th March 2004
Cantilevers touched the bottom Cantilever over a well 50 m PMMA-based Hydrogel Polymer BioMEMS Polymer/Silicon Sensors • Environmentally sensitive micro-patterned polymer structures on cantilevers A. Gupta, O. Elibol, R. Bashir Z. Hilt,N. Peppes, UT Austin 25 20 ) m m 15 Deflection at the tip ( 10 Experiment Model - 5 slope = 18.3mm/pH (=1nm/5e-5DpH) • DpH = 1-10e-5 • pH = 6.5 ~ 1.9e5 H+ in 1000mm3 • DpH = 5e-4 change of ~ 150 H+ 0 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 pH of Fluid Around the Cantilever R. Bashir, J.Z. Hilt, A. Gupta, O. Elibol, and N.A. Peppas, Applied Physics Letters, Oct 14th, 2002; J. Zachary Hilt, Amit K. Gupta, Rashid Bashir, Nicholas A. PeppasBiomedical Microdevices, September 2003, Volume 5, Issue 3, 177-184
Pulses due to passage of dsDNA BioMEMS Polymer/Silicon Sensors H. Chang, G. Andreadakis, R. Bashir, Purdue Univ. F. Kosari, G. Vasmatzis, Mayo Clinic • Frontiers in biology Single molecule detection (and sequencing) • Biological pores and channels can perform sensing for genomics, proteomics, and Systems-Biology research • Nanotechnology-based (top-down/bottoms up) are needed for making these approaches usable, and robust and form arrays of addressable pores. E-beam litho step done at PSU • H. Chang, F. Kosari, G. Andreadakis, G. Vasmatzis, E. Basgall, A. H. King, and R. Bashir, “Towards Integrated Micro-Machined Silicon-Based Nanopores For Characterization Of DNA”, Hilton Head MEMS conference, 2004, Hilton Head, South Carolina. • R. Bashir, H. Chang, F. Kosari, G. Andreakakis, M. A. Alam, G. Vasmatzis, “DNA Mediated Fluctuations in Ionic Current through Silicon Oxide Nano-Channels”, Nano Letters, Web Release 7th July, 2004.
Acknowledgements Faculty Collaborators • Prof. A. Bhunia (Food Science), Prof. D. Bergstrom (Med Chem), Prof. S. Broyles (BioChem), Prof. M. Ladisch (Ag& Bio Engr), Prof. G. Vasmatzis (Mayo Clinic) Funding Agencies • Discovery Park at Purdue University (BNC, BBC) • US Department of Agriculture (Food Safety Engineering Center) • NASA Institute on Nano-electronics and Computing • National Institute of Health • NSF, NSF Career Award • DARPA Nanotechnology Research • Airforce Research Labs • MARRS (MURI) Project Research Scientists/Post-docs: • Dr. Demir Akin Rafael Gomez (now at Caltech) • Dr. Dallas Morisette Graduate Students (Bio MEMS): • Hung Chang • Angelica Davilia • Oguz Elibol • Amit Gupta • Aeraj-ul-Haque • Samir Iqbal • Sangwoo Lee • Haibo Li • Yi-Shao Liu • Matt Maschmann • Kidong Park • BioVitesse, Inc. Co-Founder Graduate Students (RF MEMS): • Joolien Chee • Chung Hao Chen • Asad Jawaid • Jeong-Il Kim • Dennis Lin