Chapter 10: Fishing Art. Introduction:
Chapter 10: Fishing Art
Introduction: A fish pond, or fishpond, is a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes. In medieval era it was typical for monasteries and castles (small, partly self-sufficient communities) to have a fish pond.
Food Production: • A typical Oklahoma pond produces about 341 lbs/acre. This average ranges from 57 lbs/acre. With proper management, harvestable food fish production can be increased to 500 or more lbs/acre in many ponds. • Commercial Aquaculture: • Many watershed ponds have been used to raise fish for sale. • Profit can be range from $200 / surface acre of water or more depending on species and stocking densities.
Sport Fishing: • Is the most sought after benefit on most pond owners. • The sport of catching fish using a rod and reel. • Fish are often stunted and may undesirable species can be present. • Fishing Leases: • Are increasingly popular and can provide income to the land owner with the right mix of natural resources, location and management knowledge. • Lakes, 15 acre are longer, or numerous, smaller ponds are best.
Livestock Production: • Ponds are indispensable for livestock production. • Ponds can be enhanced to better maintain water during periods of drought. • Pond water quality can be improved to the benefit of cattle and the pond. • Wildlife Habitat: • Improvements can be a part of most pond management plans. • Many other species of wildlife are attracted to ponds for water, cover and the food they provide.
Fire Protection: • Is a major benefit of pond ownership for many rural residences. • May provide fire protection for use by fire department. • Irrigation: • Pond provides water to irrigate commercial crops, orchards and home gardens. • Reduce cost to the land owner.
Swimming and Recreation: • Many land owners use their ponds primarily for recreational activities, picnics, barbeques and swimming. • Livestock should not have direct access to ponds designed for swimming.
Scientific Method in Raising Fish Breed Techniques for Tropical Fish
Sexing Fish: • Classified as sexually demographic or sexually isomorphic. • Primary Sexes: (shape or sex organ) • Secondary Sexes differences: (size, shape color [sexual dichromatism], finnage. • Male: colorful, larger, and have more elaborated finnage. • Female: slightly rounded.
Selecting the Parent Fish: • There are several important traits to seek in choosing the parent fish: • Choose fish that produces attractive young. • Only use mature, healthy fish for spawning. • Be sure that the pair is compatible. • Avoid crossing different strains or color forms. • Make sure that the pair are both of the same species.
1. Egg-scatters: • These species simply scatter their adhesive or non-adhesive eggs to fall to the substrate, into plants, or float to the surface. • The fry hatch quickly. • 2. Egg-depositors: • These species deposit their eggs on a substrate (tank glass, wood, rocks, plants). • Mostly lay less eggs than egg scatters, although the eggs are larger.
3. Egg-burriers: • These species usually inhabit waters that dry up at some time of the year. • Majority of egg-burriersare annual Killifish which lay their eggs in mud. • 4. Mouth-brooders: • Are species that carry their eggs or larvae in their mouth. • 5. Nest Builders: • Build some sort of nest for their eggs and practice brood care.
Recommended Warm Water Fish: • Are recommended for recreational fish ponds include the sunfish (Centrarchids), channel catfish, and a few minnows, • Recommended Cold Water Fish: • Rainbow Trout • 1. Largemouth Bass: • Are also referred to as black bass.
2, Bluegill: LipomisMacrochirus: • Are usually considered a secondary sport fish and serve as a forage fish for black bass. • 3. Red-ear Surfish: LepomisMicrolophus: • Are considered secondary sport fish and, like the bluegill, also serve as forage fish for black bass. Grow in excess of 5-6 inches in their first year.
4. Crappie: Genus Pomoxis: • Are considered primary sport fish and are the largest of the “pan fish”. • 5. Channel Catfish: IctalurusPunctatus: • Are distinguished from catfish by its short base and rounded anal fin that possesses 24-29 fin rays.
6. Fathead Minnow: PimephalesPromelas: • Is used as a forge for black bass in recreational ponds. • Reaches about 4 inches, is thin bodied, and has wide blunt head. • 7. Rainbow Trout: Oncorhynchusmykiss: • May be recognized by many irregular spots on the fish’s back, sides, dorsal fin, and tail. • Have a reddish-violet line on either side of the fish.
Selecting and Securing Fish Culture • Choosing and stoking small fish; • Ensuring good water conditions; • Providing the fish with adequate food; • Harvesting and marketing the fish produced.