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Water Services Trust Fund Financial Support for Improved Access to Water and Sanitation . Planning & Presence Operation of w ater supply schemes for the urban poor What makes them unsustainable? What goes wrong? How to improve? Mombasa, 10-10-2012 Han S eur (GIZ Advisor WSTF).

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water services trust fund financial support for improved access to water and sanitation

Water Services Trust FundFinancial Support for Improved Access to Water and Sanitation

Planning & Presence

Operation of water supply schemes for the urban poor

What makes them unsustainable?

What goes wrong?

How to improve?

Mombasa, 10-10-2012

Han Seur (GIZ Advisor WSTF)

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation& sustainability

Planning & Presence

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability1
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation & sustainability

What are the main objectives we want to achieve with our pro-poor water supply and sanitation projects?

1. Social & public health objectives

2. Financial & commercial

3. Technical (choice of technology & maintenance & repair)

4. Environmental

5. Sector (regulator)

6. Image objective

Only proper planning results in sustainable operation!!

Good planning requires considering allobjectives

Planning & Presence

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability2
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation & sustainability

How to get it wrong? Racecourse Water Project in Kitwe, Zambia

Causes of failure:

  • No collection of data
  • Project only guided by social & public health objectives (1/250)
  • Neglect of the current water supply situation
  • No respect for the decisions households make
  • Neglect of the interests of Kiosk Operators
  • Neglect of kiosk design (to control costs)

Planning & Presence

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability3
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation & sustainability

How to get it wrong?

Racecourse in Kitwe, Zambia

Planning & Presence

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability4
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation & sustainability

How to get it wrong?

Racecourse in Kitwe, Zambia

Planning & Presence

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability5
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation & sustainability

So what happened to the project?

  • Few customers at each kiosk
  • Low consumption levels (2-3 l/c/d)
  • Low Operator incomes
  • Operators not motivated to work at kiosk and to pay their water bill
  • Kiosks are abandoned or closed
  • Low revenue , low collection efficiency & high maintenance costs
  • Water bills are not paid & no longer prepared
  • WSP is not motivated to carry out all required O&M works
  • Gradual neglect of the scheme (perceived as not viable)
  • Dilapidated infrastructure & poor water supply

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas getting the right mindset creating a real presence
B) Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Getting the right mindset & creating a real presence

What often happens after a festive project inauguration?

Example: Kosovo Village, Mathare, Nairobi

  • “Complicated area”
  • Many illegal connections
  • Semi cartels, violence, crime
  • NCWSC/Pamoja/WSTF
  • Successful implementation

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas getting the right mindset creating a real presence1
B)Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Getting the right mindset & creating a real presence

What were the key problems?

Initially NCWSC did not establish a real presence in the area:

  • Scheme was not monitored
  • Maintenance and repair works were not carried out
  • Customers received no bills or estimated bills
  • Customer complaints were not addressed
  • Local water committees (created to work with NCWSC) were ignored
  • Poor internal (NCWSC) communication

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas getting the right mindset creating a real presence2
B) Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Getting the right mindset & creating a real presence

Impact of WSP’s absence?

• Kiosks became dirty

• Meters were not read

• Bills were not prepared or residents receive the wrong bills

• Illegal connections gradually reappeared

• People prefer to get/buy (cheaper) water from an illegal connection

• Fewer people came to the kiosks

• Kiosks were often closed

• Pipes and kiosks were vandalised and not repaired

• Customers did not know how to enquire or file complaints

• No revenue; The scheme was seen as not being viable

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas getting the right mindset creating a real presence3
B) Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Getting the right mindset & creating a real presence

What is the solution?

1. Developing a new mindset:

  • See slums as a business opportunity
  • Provide better services in slums reduces non-revenue water
  • Treat slum dwellers as customers entitled to the same services

Customers who want to pay!

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas having the right mindset and creating a real presence
B) Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Having the right mindset and creating a real presence
  • Adopting improved operation procedures and practices:
  • Create a small team (existing staff members) offering services in slums
  • Decentralise operation
  • More efficient use of staff (Plumbers in ??)
  • Establish a small local office (Mathare Nairobi)
  • Implement a customer care concept
  • Close monitoring of the scheme & supervision of Operators
  • Carry out necessary O&M works and disconnections
  • Prepare bills based on real meter readings
  • Experiment with pre-paid meters (Nakuru)

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas having the right mindset and creating a real presence1
B) Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Having the right mindset and creating a real presence

Improved operation procedures and practices:

  • More efficient use of staff (Plumbers in Webuye)

Planning & Presence

a impact of poor project planning on operation sustainability6
A)Impact of poor project planningon operation & sustainability

Functionality of WSTF-funded urban infrastructure

Planning & Presence

b operating schemes in low income urban areas getting the right mindset creating a real presence4
B) Operating Schemes in Low-Income Urban Areas: Getting the right mindset & creating a real presence

Moving beyond project implementation: Support provided by the WSTF

  • Tools that can improve project planning (Toolkit)
  • MajiData
  • Field appraisals carried out by the WSTF/UPC team
  • Support provided by the Field Monitors (site selection, adapting scope)
  • Support to the low income area units of the WSPs!!

The WSTF aims to enable licensed Water Service providers to extend their services to the urban low income areas

Planning & Presence

community or delegated m anagement the solution
Community- or Delegated Management: The solution?
  • If their WSS schemes in slums flop many WSP and donors conclude that pro-poor water supply & sanitation are to be left to the NGOs or the community (disengagement)

The principle; Why should I, being a slum dweller, be made dependent on the ability of my fellow slum dwellers or local entrepreneurs to operate a water supply scheme? Why am I not entitled to receiving services from my licensed provider? Am I different?

  • Romanticizing the community & creation of cartels
  • Question: Why should WSPs not deliver WSS & customer care services directly to all its customers?

Planning & Presence

thank you
Thank You!

Planning & Presence