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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2016, P-2017, P-2018. Aircraft Familiarization Aircraft Controls Aircraft Instruments Weight and Balance. Aircraft Structure and Controls. Aircraft Familiarization. Why do I need to know this stuff anyway? Terminology Structure Control surfaces

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minnesota wing aircrew training tasks p 2016 p 2017 p 2018
Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2016, P-2017, P-2018
  • Aircraft Familiarization
    • Aircraft Controls
    • Aircraft Instruments
  • Weight and Balance
aircraft familiarization
Aircraft Familiarization
  • Why do I need to know this stuff anyway?
  • Terminology
  • Structure
  • Control surfaces
  • Instrumentation
  • Limitations
the airplane
The Airplane
  • CAP typically uses C172 and C182.
flight instruments
Flight Instruments
  • Magnetic Compass
    • Primarily a backup
    • Doesn’t require any power
    • Installation problems
    • Bank angles and speed changes can cause a compass to show the wrong heading
flight instruments1
Flight Instruments
  • Heading Indicator (Directional Gyro)
    • Gyro-driven heading indicator
    • Quick response to turns
    • Stable indications
    • Electrical or vacuum-driven
    • Will drift, requires periodic re-alignment
flight instruments2
Flight Instruments
  • Altimeter
    • Usually set to show pressure altitude above Mean Sea Level (MSL)
    • Accurate altitude is dependent on the altimeter setting.
flight instruments3
Flight Instruments
  • Turn Coordinator
    • Really two instruments
    • Miniature aircraft shows turn rate only - does not show bank angle
    • Inclinometer shows quality of turn - Coordinated, slip, skid
flight instruments4
Flight Instruments
  • Attitude Indicator
    • Provides a horizon reference
    • Hash marks indicate bank angle
flight instruments5
Flight Instruments
  • Airspeed
    • Knots or MPH
    • Colored markings
    • Shows aircraft performance
flight instruments6
Flight Instruments
  • Vertical Speed
    • Climb or descent rate
    • Has a lag due to design
    • Use with altimeter
engine instruments
Engine Instruments
  • Tachometer
    • Markings — green arc
    • Indicates power
other engine instruments
Other Engine Instruments
  • Gauges
    • Fuel (accurate at empty)
    • Oil Temperature and Pressure
    • Vacuum and Generator
    • Exhaust Gas Temperature
    • Instruments vary from aircraft to aircraft
comm vor and dme radios
Comm, VOR and DME radios

DME

  • Navigation/Communication Radio
    • Primary and Standby Frequencies

Comm1

Nav 1

Communications

Navigation

Comm2

Nav2

comm antennas
Comm Antennas
  • Normally mounted on top
  • One for each radio
nav antennas
Nav Antennas
  • “Cat whisker” style
  • One for each nav
navigation instruments
Navigation Instruments

VOR

ADF

  • VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR-DME, VORTAC)
    • Indicates direction to/from ground transmitter relative to magnetic North
  • Automatic Direction Finder (NDB)
    • Direction toward ground transmitter relative to airplane nose
other antennas
Other Antennas

Loop

(directional)

ADF

  • Marker
  • Beacon
uhf antenna
UHF Antenna

Blade type (may be spike)

Transponder & DME

[If mounted up front, may interfere with DF]

global positioning system
Global Positioning System
  • Satellite based navigation
    • Apollo GX55
    • Can provide search pattern course guidance and lat and long of target
gps antenna
GPS Antenna
  • Line of sight, so mounted at the very top
  • Comm antennas can interfere with the weak signals, so they are tested for interference

GPS

direction finding receiver
Direction Finding Receiver
  • Used for electronic ELT searches
static wicks
Static “wicks”
  • Mitigate buildup of static electricity

(interferes with comm)

  • Wings, elevators, vertical stabilizer
  • Take care when walking around
weight and balance
Weight and Balance
  • The wings generate a limited amount of lift
  • Maximum weight for an aircraft is set by the manufacturer
  • Pitch stability is affected by the location of the center of gravity
  • The pilot computes weight and balance and controls it by loading the aircraft correctly
  • -If incorrectly loaded:
    • the pilot may not be able to raise the nose during take off or
    • the aircraft may be unstable and difficult or impossible to control in the air
weight and balance1
Weight and Balance
  • Excessive weight adversely impacts performance:
    • Longer take off and landing distance
    • Reduced climb performance
    • Reduced ability to withstand turbulence and wind shear forces
  • Out of Forward C.G. limits can cause:
    • Reduced up-elevator authority (ability to raise the nose)
    • Can eliminate the ability to flare for landing
  • Out of Rear C.G. limits can cause:
    • Reduced down-elevator authority (ability to lower the nose)
    • Can make stall recovery difficult or impossible
mission aircraft operations
Mission Aircraft Operations
  • A CAPF84 or CAPF104 must be completed
  • Altimeter settings will be from a source within 50 NM or the closest source available and updated hourly.
  • Airspeed will be no lower than 1.3 times aircraft stall at zero flaps and 30 degrees of bank.
mission aircraft operations1
Mission Aircraft Operations
  • Search altitudes are limited to no lower than 500 feet above the surface (except for counter drug vessel identification).
  • Search aircraft on missions over water must plan to be over a suitable airfield with at least 90 minutes of fuel on board at normal cruise speed.