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Reports from WWS and Status and Plans of Physics and Detector Activities in Asia. - In the context of global efforts -. Hitoshi Yamamoto Tohoku University. IHEP Beijing, 2006/1. ILC Physics. e.g. Higgs coupling measurements. SM Higgs : coupling mass.

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Reports from wws and status and plans of physics and detector activities in asia
Reports from WWSand Status and Plans of Physics and Detector Activities in Asia

- In the context of global efforts -

Hitoshi Yamamoto

Tohoku University

IHEP Beijing, 2006/1

e.g. Higgs coupling measurements

SM Higgs : coupling mass

Higgs Couplings : Deviations from SM

(By S. Yamashita)


(2 Higgs Doulet Model)

Extra dimension

(Higgs-radion mixing)

ILC Detector Performance Goals


  • Vertexing

    • ~1/5 rbeampipe,~1/30 pixel size (wrt LHC)

  • Tracking

    • ~1/6 material, ~1/10 resolution (wrt LHC)

  • Jet energy (quark reconstruction)

    • ~1/2 resolution (wrt LHC)

Or better

PFA (Particle Flow Algorithm)

  • Many other important modes have 4 or more jets : e.g.

    • Higgs self-coupling : 6 jets

    • Top Yukawa coupling : 8 jets

    • WW* branching fraction of Higgs : 4 jets+missing n

  • How to achieve for jet ?

  • Basic idea : PFA

    • Use trackers for charged particles

    • Use ECAL for photon

    • The rest is assumed to be neutral hadrons (ECAL+HCAL)

Z→qq (by T. Yoshioka)



Red : pion

Yellow : gamma

Blue : neutron

- Gamma Finding


Red : pion

Yellow : gamma

Blue : neutron

- Track Matching

Red : pion

Yellow : gamma

Blue : neutron

Remaining hits are assumed

to be neutral hadrons.

Red : pion

Yellow : gamma

Blue : neutron

PFA : major soruce = confusion

  • Using typical values

  • ... and ignoring confusion,

  • Confusion is dominant even for the goal of

  • → fine segmentation , large radius, large B : cost!

  • Increase ECAL radius (Rin) to separate clusters

    • Charged track separation  B Rin2

    • Neutral separation  Rin

      Neutral separation not helped by B

→Large ECAL radius

Gld detector concept
GLD Detector Concept

  • Large ECAL radius, moderate B field

  • Asian studies of ILC physics and detector are focused around GLD (Global LC Detector)

  • Active international leadership

    • Mike Ronan, Graham Wilson

    • Mark Thomson, Ron Settles

    • Hwanbae Park, HY

  • One of the three major detector concepts recognized by WWS

  • GLD Executive board

    • S. Yamashita - detector optimization

    • A. Miyamoto - software/reconstruction

    • Y. Sugimoto - vertexing

    • H.-J. Kim - intermediate trackers

    • R. Settles - central tracker

    • T. Takeshita - calorimeters

    • T. Tauchi - MDI

    • H. Yamaoka - magnet/support

    • P. LeDu- DAQ

    • M. Thomson - space/band-width watch dog

Major Detector Concept Studies(the parameters are the current defaults - may change)

  • SiD (American origin)

    • Silicon tracker, 5T field

    • SiW ECAL

    • 4 ‘coordinators’ (2 Americans, 1 Asian, 1 European)

  • LDC (European origin)

    • TPC, 4T field

    • SiW ECAL (“medium” radius)

    • 6 ‘contact persons’: (2 Americans, 2 Asians, 2 Europeans)

  • GLD (Asian origin)

    • TPC (+Silicon IT), 3T field

    • W/Scintillator ECAL (“large” radius)

    • 6 ‘contact persons’: (2 Americans, 2 Asians, 2 Europeans)

+ vertexing near IP

ECAL/HCAL inside coil

Detector concepts
Detector Concepts

  • 4th concept proposed at Snowmass 05

    • Based on dual-readout compensating cal.

  • Requests from WWS for new concept

    (as of 2006,1)

    • Contact person(s)

    • Provide representatives for panels

      (R&D panel, MDI panel, Costing panel)

    • Produce “detector outline document”

      by LCWS Bangalore, March 2006

Wws worldwide study on physics and detectors
WWS (Worldwide Study on Physics and Detectors)

  • Started in 1998 (Vancouver ICHEP)

  • 6 committee members from each of 3 regions

  • 3 co-chairs - now members of GDE

    • C. Baltay → J. Brau

    • D. Miller → F. Richard

    • S. Komamiya → HY

  • Tasks (in short)

    • Recognize and coordinate detector concept studies

    • Register and coordinate detector R&Ds

    • Interface with GDE

    • Organize LCWS (1 per year now)

Detector outline document
Detector Outline Document

  • Document that precedes DCR (detector concept report)

  • Contents (~100 pages total)

    • Introduction

    • Description of the concept

    • Expected performances for benchmark modes

    • Subsystem technology selections

    • Status of on-going studies

    • List of R&Ds needed

    • Costing

    • Conclusion

Detector timeline
Detector Timeline



Wws panels
WWS Panels












Benchmark panel charge

Detector concept studies for ILC are now moving from basic concepts to

optimization of detector parameters. The aim of the benchmark panel is

to aid this process by proposing a minimum set of physics modes

that cover capabilities of detector performance such as vertexing,

tracking, calorimetries, muon system, machine-detector interface,

and overall issues of particle flow and hermeticity,

such that concept studies can use these modes to evaluate and

optimize given detector designs. For such evaluations to be effective,

benchmark panel may suggest important backgrounds to be taken into

account and other assumptions used in evaluating the benchmark modes.

Benchmark Panel

  • Document produced by the benchmark panel (WWS).

    (Obtainable from Snowmass05 web sites)

  • Short list :

Det ir panel
#det/#IR panel

  • 20mrad xing simpler and better understood now

  • Two BDSs →More constraints on linac

  • One BDS with 14mrad xing?

  • Machine simulation : more background for 2mrad

  • Detector simulation : more background for 20mrad

Ir detectors
#IR, #detectors

  • Roughly in rising/falling order of preference for acc./det. people,

    (iIR: instrumented IR, nIR: non-instrumented IR)

    • 2 iIRs/ 2 detectors    

    • 1 iIR/ 2 detectors (push-pull) + 1 nIR

    • 1 iIR/ 2 detectors (push-pull)

    • 1 iIR/ 1 detector (push-pull capability)

    • 1 iIR/ 1 detector + 1 nIR

    • 1 iIR/ 1 detector

  • #det/#IR panel of WWS (chair: J. Brau)

    • Produced a report (

    • Baseline configuration is 2IR 2det : still open

R d panel
R&D Panel

  • Charge:

    • Survey and prioritize R&Ds needed for ILC experiments (NOT individual proposals)

    • Inputs are from R&D collaborations and concept studies

    • Register and facilitate regional review processes

  • Chair:C. Damerell (also on R&D board of GDE)

  • Outputs:

    • Web links to R&Ds

    • Detector R&D report (about to be public)

Horizontal and Vertical collaborations

It is something like this : (detail may not be accurate)


  • 1 train = ~3000 bunches in 1ms, 5 Hz

  • Typical pixel size ~ (20mm)2 → occupancy is too high if integrate over 1 train.

  • No proven solution to bunch id each hit so far. Then what?

  • Readout during train ( ~20 times)

    • Standard pixel size - MAPS, CPCCD, DEPFET, SOI

  • Readout between train

    • Standard pixel size ( ~20 time slices stored on-pixel)

      • Store in CCD - ISIS

      • Store in capacitors - FAPS

    • Fine pixel size (~1/20 standard)

      • No Bunch id - FPCCD

      • Bunch id - CMOS (double pixel sensor)

No demonstrated solution yet.

(apology for not covering all...)

Cpccd column parallel ccd
CPCCD (column-parallel CCD)

  • RAL

  • Readout each column separately

  • 50MHz would readout 5cm 20 times per train

  • Diffusion : multi hit while shifting

    → fully depleted CCD?

  • Prototype sensor (CPC1) tested w/ >25 MHz readout.

  • Clock drive is challenging.

  • Readout chip made (CPR1)

    Operation verified (w/bugs to fix)

  • New sensor/readout fabricated

    (CPC2/CPR2) and under tests.

Maps monolithic active pixel sensor
MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor)

Inner layer

  • IReS,GSI,CEA (+SUCIMA coll.)

  • Use the epi-layer of commercial processes - small signal (a few 10s e)

  • 1Mrad g OK (SUCCESOR1)

  • 1012n/cm2 OK, 1013e/cm2 OK


  • 3 sensors thinned to 50mm

  • CP,CDS works(MIMOSA8), but not fast - readout transversely.

  • Also try FAPS-like scheme (MIMOSA12)





Before&after 1Mrad g

ADC count 55Fe

Reset transistor

Source follower

Row select transistor

reset gate




pixel #1




pixel #20


row select

sense node (n+)


To column load


buried channel (n)

p+ well

p+ shielding implant

reflected charge

Charge collection

reflected charge

High resistivity epitaxial layer (p)

ISIS (In-situ Storage Image Sensor)

  • RAL

  • Small CCD on each pixel (~20 cells) - charge is

    shifted into it 20 times per train

  • Immune to EMI

  • Technology exists as ultra-high-speed camera

  • Prototype now being made (E2V)

FAPS (Flexible Active Pixel Sensor)

  • Pixels 20x20 mm2

  • 10 storage cells per pixel

    (20 in the real sensor)

  • First prototypes in 2004

  • Source test done

Fpccd kek

  • Fine-pixel CCD

    • (5mm)2 pixel

    • Fully-depleted to suppress diffusion

    • Immune to EMI

    • CCD is an established technology

    • Baseline for GLD

  • Fully-depleted CCD exists (Hamamatsu : astrophys.)

  • Background hits can be furhter reduced by hit pattern (~1/20)

  • No known problems now

  • Want to produce prototype in 2006

Cmos double pixel sensor
CMOS (double pixel sensor)

  • Yale, Oregon

  • 2 pixel sensors on top of each other - 5x5mm2 (micro) and 50x50mm2 (macro)

  • Macro pixel triggers and times (bunch id) hits - up to 4 hits stored on pixel.

  • Micro pixels store analog signal.

  • Time and ADC data are read out between trains.

  • Only micro pixels under hit macro pixels are queried.

  • Two sensors in one silicon, or


  • Conceptual design being worked with Sarnoff.


Status and plan on vertexing
Status and Plan on Vertexing

  • FPCCD is the baseline for GLD

    • Established technology

    • No known problems

    • Needs funding!

  • SOI (Silicon on insulator) and monolithic active pixel sensors being pursued as ageneral R&Ds (e.g. w/ super-B)


  • Two main candidates

    • TPC - central tracker for GLD, LDC

      • ~200 hits/track s~100mm/hit

    • Silicon strip - central tracker for SiD

      • ~5 hits/track with much better s (~7mm)

      • Also used as

        • Inner/forward tracker for GLD, LDC

        • Endcap tracker for GLD

        • Outer tracker (of TPC) for LDC (GLD?)


  • Endplate detectors

    • Wires - conventional

      • Amplification at wires only

      • Signal is induced on pads - slow collection

      • Strong frame needed - endplate material

      • Wires can break

  • MPGD (Multi-pixel Gas Detector) -R&D items

    • Amplification where drift electrons hit (w/i ~100mm)

    • Directly detect amplified electrons on pads - fast

    • Ion feeback suppressed

  • GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier)

    • 2-3 stages possible - discharge-safer(?)

  • MicroMEGAS (Micro Mesh Gas detector)

    • 1 stage only - simpler






  • Micromesh with pitch~50mm

  • Pillar height ~ 50-100mm

  • Amplification between mesh and pads/strips

  • Most ions return to mesh.




  • Two copper foils on both sides of kapton layer of ~50mm thick

  • Amplification at the holes

  • Gain~104 for 500V

  • Can be used multi-staged

  • Natural broadening can help center-of-gravity technique.


Ilc tpc r d groups lctpc
ILC TPC R&D groups (LCTPC)

~70 active people worldwide














Tpc r d results
TPC R&D results

GEM vs wire

  • Now 3 years of MPGD experience gathered. MPGDs compared with wire

  • Gas properties rather well understood (dirft velocity, diffusion effect ~ MC)

  • Diffusion-limited resolution seems feasible

  • Resistive foil charge-spreading demonstrated

  • CMOS RO chip demonstrated

  • Design work starting for the Large Prototype (funded by EUDET)

Charge spreading by resistive foil

Silicon tracker r ds
Silicon Tracker R&Ds

  • DSSD in-house fabrication in Korea

    • Characterized. S/N = 25

    • Radiation test in progress

    • RO Hybrid is produced

  • Long-ladder R&D (SantaCruz)

    • Readout chip LSTFE for long and spaced bunch train. Being tested.

    • Backend architecture defined

    • Long ladders being assembled

  • SILC collaboration

    • 10-60cm strip length

    • S/N = 20-30 for 28cm (Sr90), OK

    • New front end chip being tested

      ~OK. Next : power cycling

    • Ladder assembly prototype soon

Status and plans for tracking
Status and Plans for Tracking

  • TPC

    • We are a part of LCTPC collaboration

    • EUDET

      • large prototype (field cage) : made to fit inside our superconducting magnet (D=85cm,1.2 Tesla)

    • Produce MPGD endplates for the large prototype

  • Si trackers

    • Korean groups in close contact with SILC

    • Endcap Tracker and outer tracker (outside of TPC) not yet studied well


Critical part of PFA

‘Realistic’ PFA

Full shower simulation


Photon finding

Track matching

Achieved ~40%/E1/2 for the 3 concepts

Starting to be useful for detector optimization

Analog vs digital HCAL readout


However, not quite mature yet to be conclusive (high-energy jets)

Large international collaboration : CALICE


GLD Jet energy resolution at Z→qq

(realistic simulation)


  • Silicon/W

    • High granularity (~1cm2 or less) and stable gain.

    • Cost : $2-3/cm2 for Si. How far can it go down?


silicon wafer (4x4mm2)

CALICE prototype (1cm2 cell) beam test


  • Scintillator/W

    • Cheaper and larger granurarity (3x3 - 5x5cm2)

    • Scintillator strips may be cost-effective way for granurarity

      (1cm x Ycm : Y~5cm)

    • Read out by fibre + PMT or SiPM/MPPC

Colorado : staggered cells (5x5cm2)


  • SiPM (invented in Russia)

    • ~1000 cells in 1mm2

    • Limited Geiger mode

    • High B field (5T) OK

    • Gain ~ 106 ; no preamp

    • Fast s(1g) ~ 50ps

    • Quite cheap

    • Noisy?

    • Temperature dependence

    • Steep bias valtage dependence


(Multipixel Photon Counter)

Sees ~60 pe’s at room temp.

0.5 cm


2 cm



  • Analog : Scintillator (CALICE)

    • Modest granurarity (3x3cm2 up)

    • SiPM readout

    • MINICAL prototype tested with 100 SiPM - Same resolution as PMT


  • Digital (CALICE)

    • Fine granurarity (~1x1cm2)

    • 1 bit readout

    • GEM and RPC w/ pad readout

      Common readout electronics

    • Understood well - ready for 1m3


Signal Pad

Mylar sheet

1.1mm Glass sheet

1.2mm gas gap


1.1mm Glass sheet


Mylar sheet

Aluminum foil



Calorimeter r ds
Calorimeter R&Ds

  • Si-Scintillator hybrid for ECAL

    • Cost-performance optimization

  • Crystal for ECAL

    • Focus on energy resolution


    • Dual readout of dE/dx (scintillator) and Cerenkov (quartz fibre)

    • Ideal compensation to obtain very good hadron energy resolution

    • Basis for the 4-th concept

    • Challenge : ILC implementation

Status and plans on calorimeters
Status and Plans on Calorimeters

  • ECAL large prototype in progress

    • Sci-strip type

  • HCAL large prototype needs funding!

  • SiPM/MPPC promissing and testing in progress

  • More PFA study painfully needed

    • Optimization for high-energy jets (granularity)

    • Scintillator strip design works?

More missing items
More missing items

  • Muon system is probably easy in concept but difficult in practice (large system - support, etc.) - Missing R&D item!

  • Solenoid and compensation coil (DID - for large xing angle) : non-trivial problem to realize, and DID is a problem to solve for trackers and bkg.

  • Forward regions (endcap regions) are important for t-channel productions such as

  • Very forward regions (FCAL, BCAL) are critical for tagging electrons for SUSY pair creations : recently attacked by Korean groups (thanks!)

  • With the long train, DAQ is not a trivial problem

    (now P. LeDu alone for GLD)

  • Needs more people for beam background simulations