第二語言習得. 組員 : 應英二乙 4A1C0010 陶思寧 4A1C0082 莊巧筠 4A1C0088 侯乃文 4A1C0101 陳憶芳. Anxiety. Intricately intertwined with self-esteem and inhibition and risk-taking, the construct of anxiety plays an important affective role in second language acquisition.
組員: 應英二乙 4A1C0010 陶思寧
At a more momentary, or situational level, state anxiety is experienced in relation to some particular event or act.
Yet another important insight to be applied to our understanding of anxiety lies in the distinction between debilitative and facilitative anxiety (Alpert and Haber 1960, Scovel 1978), or what Oxfoed (1999) called “harmful” and “helpful” anxiety.
At other times it motivated her to study harder (as in the case of carrying out an intensive review of material in order to feel more at ease in oral work in the classroom).
In common terminology, empathy is the process of “putting yourself into someone else’s shoes,” of reaching beyond the self to understand what another person is feeling.
In more sophisticated terms, empathy is usually described as the projection of one’s own personality into the personality of another in order to understand him or her better.
Guiora (1972b: 142) defined empathy as “a process of comprehending in which a temporary fusion of self-object boundaries permits an immediate emotional apprehension of the affective experience of another.
Oral communication is a case in which, cognitively at least, it is easy to achieve empathetic communication because there is immediate feedback from the hearer.
So in a second language learning situation, the problem of empathy becomes acute. Not only must learner-speakers correctly identify cognitive and affective sets in the hearer, but they must do so in a language in which they are insecure.
Naiman, Frohlich, Stern, and Tedesco (1978, 1996) included an empathy measure (Hogan’s Empathy Scale─see Hogan 1969) in their battery of tests used to try to discover characteristics of the “good language learner,” but found no significant correlation between empathy and language success as measured by an imitation test and a listening test.
Certainly one of the more interestingimplications of the study of empathy is the need to define empathy cross-culturally─to understand how different cultures express empathy.