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Globalization and reforms in the higher education sector. Somayeh Parvazian.
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Though still not a precise concept, what we understand as ‘globalization’ is bringing forth numerous and profound changes in the economic, cultural, and political life of nations. These changes will deeply affect how education is defined, whom it serves, and how it is assessed (Stromquist&Monkman 2000, p 21).
Over the past four decades, higher education student numbers in most developed countries have increased and educational institutions have moved from elite to mass and then to universal higher education (Taylor 2003).
there is no causative relation between higher education and any aspects of globalization, rather all aspects are affecting each other in an ongoing cycle.
The main economic changes in higher education refer to the cutback in public funding to universities and the competition for attracting new sources of funds.
cultural rationale includes both the changes for the higher education institutions such as changes in university atmosphere, student diversity, and curricula and changes for the individual such as pursuing a global identity.
The main academic changes in higher education are referred to as the changes made in curriculum and the form of instruction. These changes are themselves related to the ‘changes in the definition of being a student and the functions that higher education plays for students and the society’ (Trow 2006; p 254).
Political realities and national security play an important role in reforms in higher education as well as having been affected by the globalization of higher education ( Jones 1998) .
the geographical concept of globalization can explain many of the reforms in higher education through all four rationales. However, in explaining the cultural, academic and political rationales, other concepts of globalization are also useful in explaining the reforms occuring in higher education.
university responses to globalization are influenced by their organizational culture, and not all the universities are affected in the same way.