slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 426 Views
  • Uploaded on

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Karen Huffman, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. Understanding Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation • Chapter 5: States of Consciousness • Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    2. Lecture Overview • Understanding Consciousness • Sleep and Dreams • Psychoactive Drugs • Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    3. Understanding Consciousness • Consciousness: an organism’s awareness of its own self and surroundings ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    4. Understanding Consciousness • Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    5. Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms • Circadian Rhythms: biological changes occurring on a 24-hour cycle • Our energy level, mood, learning, and alertness all vary throughout the day. • Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the pineal gland regulate these changes. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    6. Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms (Continued) • Disrupted circadian rhythms from shift work, jet lag,and sleep deprivation may cause alterations in mood, concentration, motivation, attention, and motor skills. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    7. What happens to humans and other animals while we sleep and dream? Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    8. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep • NREM (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: • Stage 1 (lightest sleep) • Stage 2 (deeper sleep) • Stages 3 and 4 (deepest sleep) • REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: • Light sleep (also called paradoxical sleep) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    9. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) • NREM (non-REM) sleep: • includes Stages 1 through 4 • involves lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse and breathing,and occasional, simple dreams • serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    10. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) • REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) sleep: • also known as paradoxical sleep. • involves high-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, large muscle . • serves a biological need. • may play a role in learning and consolidating new memories. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    11. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    12. The EEG, EOG, and EMG are common tools for sleep research. Sleep and Dreams: Research ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    13. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    14. Pause and Reflect: Check & Review • Judging by the cat’s posture, can you identify the photo showing REM sleep? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    15. Sleep and Dreams: Over the Life Span ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    16. Sleep and Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    17. Sleep and Dreams: Why Do We Sleep? • Repair/Restoration Theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities • Evolutionary/Circadian Theory:sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators • Cognitive Theory:dreams improve information processing ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    18. Sleep and Dreams: Why Do We Dream? • Psychoanalytic Theory: dreams are disguised symbols (manifest versus latent content) of repressed desires and anxieties • Biological Theory (activation-synthesis hypothesis): dreams are simple by-products of random stimulation of brain cells ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    19. Sleep and Dreams: Sleep Disorders Two major categories: • Dyssomnias: problems in amount, timing, and quality of sleep • Parasomnias: abnormal disturbances during sleep ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    20. Sleep and Dreams: Three Forms of Dyssomnias • Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early • Sleep Apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep • Narcolepsy: sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    21. Sleep and Dreams: Narcolepsy in Dogs ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    22. Sleep and Dreams: Two Forms of Parasomnias • Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep • Night Terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    23. Psychoactive Drugs • Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    24. Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms • Drug Abuse: drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others • Addiction: compulsion to use a specific drug or to engage in a certain activity ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    25. Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms • Psychological Dependence: desire or craving to achieve effects produced by drug • Physical Dependence: bodily processes have been somodified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    26. Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) • Withdrawal: discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs • Tolerance: decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    27. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories 1.Depressants:act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    28. Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    29. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    30. Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants 2.Stimulants:act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    31. Pause and Reflect: Why Study Psychology? • You’ll know how methamphetamine destroys the teeth and gums of chronic users. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    32. Psychoactive Drugs: Opiates 3.Opiates:act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    33. Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens 4.Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    34. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    35. Applying Psychology to Everyday Life:Club Drug Alert! • Popular “Club Drugs”: • Date Rape Drug (Rohypnol) • MDMA (Ecstasy) • GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) • Special K (Ketamine) • Crystal Meth (Methamphetamine) • LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    36. Psychoactive Drugs: How They Work • Step 1). Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters. • Step 2). Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters. • Step 3). Alter the reception of neurotransmitters. • Step 4). Change the deactivation (block the reuptake or break-down) of excess neurotransmitters. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    37. How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Step 3: Agonists vs. Antagonists) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    38. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    39. Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness • Meditation: group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    40. Hypnosis: trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    41. Hypnosis is used to treat chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy. Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    42. Pause and Reflect: Why Study Psychology? • You’ll recognize the following myths about hypnosis: • Forced hypnosis • Unethical behavior • Exceptional memory • Superhuman strength • Fakery ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

    43. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation • End of Chapter 5: States of Consciousness • Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)