Bones & Skeletal Tissue
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Bones & Skeletal Tissue. Ch 6. Function of the Skeletal System. Support Protection Movement Mineral storage Blood cell formation (hemopoiesis) Triglyceride storage. Bones & Cartilage. Anatomy of a Long Bone. spongy bone. Proximal epiphysis. compact bone. Endosteum. diaphysis.

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Bones skeletal tissue

Function of the Skeletal System

  • Support

  • Protection

  • Movement

  • Mineral storage

  • Blood cell formation (hemopoiesis)

  • Triglyceride storage



Bones skeletal tissue

Anatomy of a Long Bone

spongy bone

Proximal

epiphysis

compact bone

Endosteum

diaphysis

epiphyseal line

yellow marrow

Sharpey’s fibers

Distal

epiphysis

periosteum

hyaline cartilage



Bones skeletal tissue

Haversian system

spongy

bone

central canal

osteocyte

compact bone

periosteum


Bones skeletal tissue

osteocytes in lacunae

canaliculi in matrix

central canal

Haversian System in Compact Bone




275 bones 12 weeks 6 9 inches long

Fetal Skeleton

275 bones12 weeks (6-9 inches long)



Bones skeletal tissue

Fetus: 1st 2 months

Endochondral Ossification

2o ossification center

bone

cartilage

calcified cartilage

Just before birth

epiphyseal line

epiphyseal plate

Childhood

Adult



Bones skeletal tissue

Hormonal Regulation

of Bone Growth

  • GH from anterior pituitary, which is regulated by T3 and T4 of the thyroid

  • During puberty- sex hormones: estrogen and testosterone

  • Hyposecretion of GH- dwarfism

  • Hypersecretion of GH- gigantism


Bones skeletal tissue

Bone Homeostasis:

Remodel & Repair

  • Parathyroid hormone- stimulates osteoclasts

  • Calcitonin- inhibits osteoclasts

Maintains homeostasis


Bones skeletal tissue

Bone Homeostasis:

Remodel & Repair


Bones skeletal tissue

Bone cells that aid in remodeling

Builds new bone

Osteoblast

Mature bone cell

Osteocyte

Osteoclast

Eats bone


Bones skeletal tissue

Repair of Fractures

hematoma

callus

bony callus

bone

remodeling


Bones skeletal tissue

Common Types of Fractures

Usually treated by realignment

  • Simple- closed fracture (8-12 wks to heal) bone breaks cleanly; no penetration

  • Compound- bone penetrates through skin

  • Comminuted- bone fragments into many pieces; aged or brittle bones

  • Compression- bone is crushed

  • Depressed- broken bone portion is depressed inward

  • Impacted- broken bone ends are forced into each other

  • Spiral- excessive twisting of bone

  • Greenstick- bone breaks incompletely


Bones skeletal tissue

Common Types of Fractures

Oblique

Comminuted

Spiral

Compound


Bones skeletal tissue

Bone Repair

  • Electrical stimulation of the fracture site:

  • Increases speed and completeness of healing

  • The e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclasts down from reabsorbing bone

  • 2. Ultrasound treatment:

  • Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bones by 25-35%

  • 3. Free vascular fibular graft technique:

  • Transplant fibula in arm

  • Gives good blood supply not available in other treatments

  • 4. Bone substitutes:

  • Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV and hepatitis

  • Sea bone- coral

  • Artificial bone- ceramic


Bones skeletal tissue

Diseases of the Skeletal System

  • Osteoporosis- bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit; bones become lighter and fracture easier

  • Factors:

  • age, gender (more in women)

  • estrogen and testosterone decrease

  • insufficient exercise (or too much)

  • diet poor in Ca++ and protein

  • abnormal vitamin D receptors

  • smoking


Bones skeletal tissue

29

40

84

92

Osteoporosis



Bones skeletal tissue

Diseases of the Skeletal System

  • Rickets- vitamin D deficiency

  • Osteomalacia- soft bones, inadequate mineralization in bones, lack of vitamin D

  • Pagets Disease- spotty weakening in the bones, excessive and abnormal bone remodeling

  • Rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune reaction


Bones skeletal tissue

INQUIRY

  • What does the secondary site of ossification produce?

  • What is an epiphyseal line?

  • Provide an example of a flat bone?

  • How does PTH effect bone development?

  • How many bones in the adult skeleton?

  • What does an osteoblast do and where are they primarily found?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSHoonPWwXQ