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Networking. Feb. 6, 2008 by Larry Finger. Networking. Hardware Glossary RJ45 – Official name for 8-pin connector Cat 5, 5E or 6 - Cable suitable for “high”-speed transmission (2 flavors – straight and crossover) ‏ Hub – multiple ports with all input relayed to all ports

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networking
Networking

Feb. 6, 2008

by

Larry Finger

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Networking

Hardware Glossary

  • RJ45 – Official name for 8-pin connector
  • Cat 5, 5E or 6 - Cable suitable for “high”-speed transmission (2 flavors – straight and crossover)‏
  • Hub – multiple ports with all input relayed to all ports
  • Switch – Smarter than hub. It learns the port corresponding to a given computer and relays signals only to that port.
  • Router – interconnects between 2 networks.
  • Modem – Modulator/Demodulator – converts digital signal into form for transmission over long distances
  • NIC – Network Interface Card
  • AP – wireless Access Point
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Networking

Software Glossary (Part I)‏

  • IP – Internet Protocol
  • CSMA/CD – Collision Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
  • TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
  • UDP – User Datagram Protocol
  • IPv4 – Original form of IP Address W.X.Y.Z ~4 billion
  • IPv6 – Enhanced form (little used) ~200 trillion
  • DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – means for a server to supply the IP address for a computer
  • DNS – Domain Name Service – Names to IP Address conversion
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Networking

Software Glossary (Part II)‏

  • Netmask – Indicates range of addresses allowed
  • Client/Server – Client initiates exchange, server responds
  • MAC – Media Access Control Address – hardware (physical) address of interface
  • LAN – Local Area Network
  • NAT – Network Address Translation – allows a LAN to share one IP Address
  • ISP – Internet Service Provider
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Networking

Network – Best setup for more than 2 computers – uses external router

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Networking

On each computer connected to the router, run the Network Setup Wizard

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Networking

The Wizard

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Networking

Wizard Step 1

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Networking

Connection method

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Networking

Computer description

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Networking

Set your workgroup name

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Networking

Do you want to share printers or disk?

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Networking

A summary to check your answers

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Networking

The Wizard does its thing.

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Networking

The Wizard offers to make a Network Setup Disk

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Networking

Finish the Wizard

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Networking

A reboot is the final step

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Networking

Network for only 2 computers without external router – not recommended

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Networking

Information may also be gotten from Network Connections in Control Panel

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Networking

If you need to use a fixed IP Address

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Networking

To Share a Printer – Select Control Panel/Printers and Faxes

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Networking

File sharing – Creating a share – Right click on folder

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Networking

Creating a file share – step 2

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Networking

Browsing to a shared folder

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Networking

Assigning a shared folder to a new drive

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Networking

Assigning a shared folder to a new drive

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Networking

Diagnostic Tools

  • Link Bit – for wired connections
  • ipconfig - configuration
  • ping – test connectivity
  • nslookup – test DNS (domain nameserver)‏
  • tracert – checks routing – each router returns the time to reach it
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Networking

To check your network, use Start/Run and enter “cmd” in the box

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Networking

In the “cmd” window, type ipconfig /all

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Networking

Output of “ping www.google.com”

PING www.l.google.com (216.239.51.104) 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from kc-in-f104.google.com (216.239.51.104): icmp_seq=1 ttl=241 time=161 ms

64 bytes from kc-in-f104.google.com (216.239.51.104): icmp_seq=2 ttl=241 time=164 ms

64 bytes from kc-in-f104.google.com (216.239.51.104): icmp_seq=3 ttl=241 time=147 ms

64 bytes from kc-in-f104.google.com (216.239.51.104): icmp_seq=4 ttl=241 time=156 ms

--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---

4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3008ms

rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 147.358/157.279/164.044/6.407 ms

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Networking

Output of ping when it fails:

PING www.l.google.com (216.239.51.99) 56(84) bytes of data.

--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---

4 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 3004ms

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Networking

Output of “nslookup www.google.com”

Server: 192.168.4.1

Address: 192.168.4.1#53

Non-authoritative answer:

www.google.com canonical name = www.l.google.com.

Name: www.l.google.com

Address: 216.239.51.104

Name: www.l.google.com

Address: 216.239.51.99

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Networking

Output of tracert (Part I) – Save this for later

tracert www.google.com

tracert to www.google.com (64.233.169.104), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets

1 10.112.0.1 (10.112.0.1) 177.205 ms 184.276 ms 185.644 ms

2 gw1.iad1.fullmeshnetworks.com (38.119.98.193) 182.302 ms 183.300 ms 181.994 ms

3 fa0-2.na05.b003393-1.iad03.atlas.cogentco.com (38.112.9.129) 179.328 ms 183.148 ms 176.084 ms

4 gi8-43.3505.mpd01.iad03.atlas.cogentco.com (38.20.33.225) 174.955 ms 167.986 ms 186.439 ms

5 vl3489.mpd01.dca02.atlas.cogentco.com (154.54.7.93) 198.836 ms 199.103 ms 198.833 ms

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Networking

tracert output (Part II)‏

6 te1-2.ccr02.iad01.atlas.cogentco.com (154.54.7.158) 199.933 ms te8-2.ccr02.iad01.atlas.cogentco.com (154.54.2.50) 208.862 ms 241.249 ms

7 google.iad01.atlas.cogentco.com (154.54.10.146) 131.430 ms google.iad01.atlas.cogentco.com (154.54.13.206) 131.893 ms google.iad01.atlas.cogentco.com (154.54.10.146) 141.629 ms

8 209.85.130.12 (209.85.130.12) 151.897 ms 209.85.130.16 (209.85.130.16) 197.819 ms *

9 * 64.233.175.109 (64.233.175.109) 396.917 ms 396.506 ms

10 72.14.232.25 (72.14.232.25) 420.351 ms 442.178 ms 72.14.232.21 (72.14.232.21) 447.649 ms

11 yo-in-f104.google.com (64.233.169.104) 440.918 ms 436.546 ms 437.290 ms

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Networking

Diagnostic Steps if accessing a particular site fails:

  • Check link light if you have a wired connection
  • Ping your default gateway – if this fails, your local network is faulty.
  • Check your IP address – if 169.X.X.X, DHCP is failing.
  • Do an nslookup for the site that is failing – if this fails, your ISP's name server is failing, or you have an external connectivity problem
  • If step 4 fails, ping 216.239.51.104. If 4 works, ping site by name.
  • If 5 works and 4 fails, your ISP has a name server problem.
  • If both 4 and 5 fail, the network is failing – use the tracert output and ping each step.