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Chapter 13 -- Statement of Cash Flows: Another Look. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AN INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND USES 12th Edition. Clyde P. Stickney and Roman L. Weil. Learning Objectives.

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financial accounting an introduction to concepts methods and uses 12th edition

Chapter 13 -- Statement of Cash Flows: Another Look

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

AN INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPTS,

METHODS, AND USES

12th Edition

Clyde P. Stickney and Roman L. Weil

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Review the rationale for the statement of cash flows, particularly regarding why net income differs from cash flows.
  • Review the T-account procedure for preparing the statement of cash flows introduced in Chapter 4.
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Cement an understanding of the effect on the statement of cash flows of various transactions studied in Chapters 6 through 12.
  • Develop more effective skills in analyzing and interpreting the statement of cash flows.
chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Review of Concepts Underlying the Statement of Cash Flows
  • Review of T-Account Procedure for Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows
  • Comprehensive Illustration of the Statement of Cash Flows
  • Illustration of the Direct Method for Cash Flows from Operations
  • Interpreting the Statement of Cash Flows

Chapter Summary

review of concepts underlying the statement of cash flows
Review of Concepts Underlying The Statement of Cash Flows

The statement of cash flows …

  • explains the reasons for a change in cash.
  • classifies the reasons for the change as an operating, investing or financing activity.
  • reconciles net income with cash flow from operations.
classifications of cash flows
Classifications of Cash Flows
  • Operations –

cash flows related to selling goods and services; that is, the principle business of the firm.

2. Investing –

cash flows related to the acquisition or sale of noncurrent assets.

3. Financing –

long term and short term cash flows related to liabilities and owners’ equity; dividends are a financing cash outflow.

preparing the statement of cash flows
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows

Firms could prepare the cash flow statement directly from the cash account. Most, however, find it more efficient to prepare the cash flow statement from the balance sheet and income statement.

  • Direct and indirect methods
  • Algebraic formulation will present the underlying concept of the cash flow statement
  • Two approaches to producing the cash flow statement: columnar worksheet and t-account worksheet
direct and indirect method
Direct and Indirect Method
  • Direct method

of presentation calculates cash flow from operations by subtracting cash disbursements to supplies, employees, and others from cash receipts from customers.

  • Indirect method

calculates cash flow from operations by adjusting net income for noncash revenues and expenses.

  • Most firms present their cash flows using the indirect method.
algebraic formulation
Algebraic Formulation

Recall the basic accounting equation:

Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity

or A = L + SE

Assets are either cash (C) or not cash assets (N$A), so

C + N$A = L + SE

 C +  N$A =  L +  SE

Where  means the change in the balance,

Rearranging gives the basic equation for the statement of cash flows:

 C =  L +  SE -  N$A

algebraic formulation cont
Algebraic Formulation (Cont.)

 C =  L +  SE -  N$A

  • The change in cash,  C, is the increase or decrease in the cash account.
  • This amount must equal changes in liabilities plus changes in shareholders’ equity minus changes in assets other than cash.
  • Thus, we can identify the causes in the change in the cash account by studying the changes in non-cash accounts.
two approaches to producing the cash flow statement
Two Approaches to Producing the Cash Flow Statement

The basic formula can be implemented using either of two approaches:

  • Columnar worksheet - changes in balance sheet accounts are classified by definition using a multicolumn worksheet.
  • T-Account worksheet - changes are classified by analysis of the t-accounts.
columnar worksheet
Columnar Worksheet
  • Works well for relatively simple situations involving few transactions.
  • Enhances understanding of the cash flow statement.
  • Does not work as well as the T-account method when the number and complexity of transactions increases.
columnar worksheet cont
Columnar Worksheet (Cont.)

Begin with a comparative balance sheet.

1. Compute the change in each balance sheet account.

2. Classify each change as operating, investing or financing activity.

2. Make any needed adjustments (for example, for a sale of a long-lived asset).

4. Recast the classified changes in the form of a cash flow statement.

noncash expenses
Noncash Expenses
  • Noncash expenses, such as depreciation expense, are added back.
  • Not truly sources of cash, even though they are associated with cash inflows; rather, a reversal of the accrual process that required the expenses to be recognized without regard for the cash flow.
changes in specific accounts
Changes in Specific Accounts

increase

decrease

If noncash assets

are increased,

then cash was spent,

so cash is an outflow,

so negative sign.

If noncash assets

are decreased,

then they provided cash

so cash is an inflow,

so positive sign.

Non-cash Assets

If liab. or S.E.

increased, then cash

was obtained,

so cash in an inflow,

so positive sign.

If liab. or S.E.

decreased, then cash

was spent,

so cash in an outflow,

so negative sign.

Liabilities

and

Shareholders’

Equity

t account worksheet
T-account Worksheet
  • The columnar works well when the change in each balance sheet account affects only one of the three types of activities. It becomes cumbersome for more complex (and realistic) situations.
  • The T-account approach is a direct extension of T-accounts - facilitates analysis of a transaction which involves more than one activity.
  • For example, the change in Retained Earnings can be due to both net income (operating activity) and dividends (financing activity).
t account worksheet19
T-account Worksheet
  • Obtain beginning and ending balance sheets.
  • Prepare a T-account worksheet with a master account, cash, divided into operating, investing and financing sections.
  • Explain the change in the master cash account by reconstructing the original entries in a summary form.
  • Make any necessary adjustments.
  • Recast the master account in the format of a cash flow statement.
t account worksheet cont
T-account Worksheet (Cont.)

Cash

beginning

balance

Operations

Investing

Financing

ending

balance

Various Balance Sheet Accounts

beginning

balance

ending

balance

######

3. this part of the cash account becomes the cash flow statement.

2. these are offset by an opposite entry in the cash account.

####

1. adjustments are made to all balance sheet accounts to bring the beginning balance to the ending balance.

effects of a sale of a long term assets on cash flows

Cash ###

Accumulated Depreciation ###

Asset ###

Gain (or loss) on sale ###

Effects of a Sale of a Long-Term Assets on Cash Flows
  • A few transactions complicate the derivation of a cash flow statement from a comparative balance sheet, for example, the sale of a long-term (or fixed) asset.
  • Recall the journal entry for the sale of an asset:
sale of an asset cont
Sale of an Asset (Cont.)
  • Each of the four parts of the above journal entry require an adjustment in the cash flow statement.
  • The first line, cash, adds a line to the investing section.
  • The second line, a debit to accumulated depreciation, increases the depreciation expense above the change in the change in the accumulated depreciation account.
  • The third line, a credit to the asset, increases the amount of cash invested in long-lived assets above the change in the fixed asset accounts.
  • The fourth line, a gain or loss, is reversed out in the operating sections since this is not a cash flow.
comparison of cash flow to net income
Comparison of Cash Flow to Net Income
  • Net income is an accrual based concept and purports to show the long-term.
  • Cash flows attempt to show the short term.
  • Consider the outlook for both short-term and long-term and consider that each is either good or poor.
  • A strong growing firm shows both good long- and short-term outlooks.
comparison of cash flow to net income24
Comparison of Cash Flow to Net Income
  • A failing firm shows both poor long- and short-term outlooks.
  • What about a firm with good cash flows (short-term) but poor net income (long-term)?
  • What about a firm with poor cash flows (short-term) but good net income (long-term)?
an international perspective
An International Perspective
  • The International Accounting Standards Board (IAS No. 7) recommends but does not require a statement of cash flows.
  • An approximation to a cash flow statement can be prepared from a comparative balance sheet with some additional information.
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • The statement of cash flows is presented. It reports the effects on cash flows of a firm’s operating, investing and financing activities.
  • Information in this statement helps in understanding:
    • How operations affect liquidity,
    • The level of capital expenditures needed to support growth, and
    • The major changes in financing.
  • Two methods are presented to produce a cash flow statement from a comparative balance sheet.
rapid review true false
Rapid Review – True False

1. The investing section shows the cash flows from the sale and purchase of the companies own common stock.

False, it shows the cash

flows from the sale and

purchase of long lived assets.

2. The preferred method is the direct method by GAAP and most firms use that method to prepare their Statement of Cash Flows.

False, while the direct

method is preferred by

GAAP, the indirect method

is most commonly used.