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**HISTORY**of COMPUTERS**STICKS & STONES**People in early times used their fingers and made marks on cave walls to help themselves remember and count. They used STICKS and STONES to keep track of things.**ABACUS -3000 BC**A counting machine called “ABACUS” , was used by people in China, Greece, and Middle East to calculate. Beads were moved back and forth along parallel rods to add and subtract large numbers. Chinese call it the “suan pan”,while the Japanese call it “soroban”.**JOHN NAPIER**1550 - 1617 • Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, astronomer and astrologer. • - invented Napier’s Bones.**NAPIER’S BONES - 1617**Napiers Invention was used to multiply and divide numbers. It was the first machine to use the decimal point.**EXAMPLE :**divide numbers used to multiply**WILLIAM OUGHTRED**1574 - 1660 - English Mathematician (was one of the world's great mathematicians) - invented the slide rule - introduced the "×" symbol for multiplication as well as the abbreviations "sin" and "cos" for the sine and cosine functions.**SLIDE RULE - 1622**Slide rule was similar to a calculator and could accurately add numbers up to three digits.**BLAISE PASCAL**1623 - 1662 - French Mathematician , physicist, inventor, writer and catholic philosopher. - invented the pascaline**PASCALINE - 1642**Pascal developed a calculator called the "Arithmatique" or "Pascaline." Pascal's device used a series of toothed wheels, which were turned by hand and which could handle numbers up to 999,999.999. Pascal's device was also called the "numerical wheel calculator" and was one of the world's first mechanical adding machines.**GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNITZ**1646-1716 - German mathematician and philosopher - improved Pascal’s invention - invented the First Calculator called the Step Reckoner (or Stepped Reckoner) was a digital mechanical calculator or called now the Leibnetz wheel**STEP RECKONER OR LEIBNITZ WHEEL1672 - 1694**Step Reckoner or Leibnitz wheel was a digital mechanical calculator around 1672 and completed in 1694. The name comes from the translation of the German term for its operating mechanism; staffelwalze meaning 'stepped drum'. It was the first calculator that could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.**JOSEPH-MARIE JACQUARD**1752 - 1834 • - French silk weaver and inventor, • improved on the original punched card design of Jacques de Vaucanson's loom of 1745 • - Invented Automatic Loom or • the Jacquard Loom**AUTOMATIC LOOM OR**JACQUARD LOOM 1801 Automatic loom or Jacquard Loom controlled by punched cards. The cards controlled the selection of threads to create a variety of patterns.**CHARLES BABBAGE**• English inventor • taught math at Cambridge University • invented a viable mechanical computer equivalent to modern digital computers called the difference and analytical engine • Called the Father of modern computer 1791-1871**DIFFERENCE ENGINE - 1833**• Babbage first computer • - a mechanical device that could perform simple mathematical calculations. • - automatic, mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.**ANALYTICAL ENGINE - 1834**- Babbage ‘s second computer - used binary system - punched cards as input - Ada Lovelace (first programmer) close friend of Charles Babbage - intended to combine its numerical qualities as though they were letters or other symbols.**LADY AUGUSTA ADA BYRON**1815-1852 • Countess of Lovelace (more commonly known as Ada Lovelace) was a mathematics prodigy of sorts and a brilliant woman far ahead of her time in terms of ideas • ‘The Enchantress of Numbers’. • World’s first Programmer**HERMAN HOLLERITH**• was an American statistician • a mechanical tabulator based on punched card to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. • He was the founder of one of the companies that later merged and became IBM. 1860 –1929**TABULATING MACHINE - 1886**• used to count the number of people who lived in the USfor more that 50 years. • used punched card as an input**HOWARD H. AIKEN**1900 – 1973 • an electrical engineer and physicist • the original conceptual designer behind IBM’s Harvard Mark I Computer. GRACE HOOPER • American computer scientist and US Navy Officer. • she was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer and deve-loped the first compiler for a computer programming language • she is sometimes referred to as "Amazing Grace."**HARVARD MARK I COMPUTER 1939**• described as "the beginning of the era of the modern computer" and weighed 10,000 pounds.**JOHN PRESPER ECKERT JR. & JOHN MAUCHLY**• both involved in science and wondered if there was a faster way to calculate equations 1900 – 1973 JOHN MAUCHLY JOHN PRESPER ECKERT JR.**ENIAC – 1946**Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer • World’s first digital computer • Massive machine was world’s first large-scale electronic general-purpose digital computer • Filled entire room & calculate in two hours**UNIVAC – 1951**Universal Automatic Computer • was the first commercial computer produced in the United States**MICROPROCESSOR – 1968**• Made up of silicon chips. • Silicon chips are made up of silicon, an element found in sand. • Allows a computer to operate faster**MICROCOMPUTER – 1981**• IBM introduced the 1st personal computer • The smallest type of computer designed for a single user**Computers Today**• Computers getting smaller and more powerful. • Computers that are so tiny to fit in your hand**VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)**• Computers programmed to create realistic three-dimensional worlds. • Using headsets, pilots and surgeons use VR to do complex jobs