HIST 3051 HISTORY OF TURKISH REPUBLIC BAHÇEŞEHİR UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak
Week I The Young Turks and the Unionists: Nationalist Response to Nationalisms The Tanzimat Reforms – The Young Ottomans - The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 – the Ottoman Parliament Tanzimat – Genç Osmanlılar - Genç [Jön]Türkler – 1908 Devrimi - Osmanlı İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti – Osmanlı Parlamentosu Roderic H. Davison, “From Empire to Republic, 1909-1923,” in Turkey, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1968, pp. 109-127. Feroz Ahmad, “The Constitutional Revolution, Reform, and War, 1908-1918,” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp. 49-73.
Week II The Balkan Wars - The Great War Balkan Savaşları – I. Dünya Savaşı – Milli İktisat - Feminizm The Balkan Wars – Word War I – The National Economy – The Emancipation of Woman Zafer Toprak, “The Family, Feminism, and the State during the Young Turk Period, 1908-1918,” in Première Rencontre Internationale sur l’Empire Ottoman et la Turquie Moderne, İstanbul-Paris, Éditions ISIS, 1991, s. 441-452. Zafer Toprak, “Nationalism and Economics in the Young Turk Era (1908-1918),” in Industrialisation, Communication et Rapports Sociaux en Turquie et en Mediterranée Orientale,(eds. Jacques Thobie et Salgur Kançal) Paris; L’Harmattan, 1994, s. 260-266.
Week III The Fall of the Ottoman Empire the Armistice - The Sèvres Treaty Mütareke – Sevr Antlaşması Erik J. Zürcher, “The Second Constitutional Period,” chapter in Turkey – A Modern History, by Erik J. Zürcher, I.B. Tauris, 1997, pp: 97-137. A. L. Macfie, “The End of the Ottoman Empire,” in The End of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1923, Longman, 1998, pp. 182-208.
Week IV The Struggle for Independence - the Lausanne Treaty – Turkish Foreign Policy Milli Mücadele – Lozan Antlaşması – Türk Dış Politikası Erik J. Zürcher, “The Struggle for Independence,” chapter in Turkey – A Modern History, by Erik J. Zürcher, I. B. Tauris, 1997, pp: 138-172. William Hale, “Resistance, Reconstruction and Diplomacy, 1918-39,” chapter in Turkish Foreign Policy 1774-2000, London; Frank Cass, 2002, pp. 44-78.
Week V From Empire to Nation: The Emergence of Modern Turkey The Proclamation of the Republic - The 1924 Constitution – the Republican People’s Party; Cumhuriyet’in İlanı - 1924 Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu – Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkası [Partisi] Bernard Lewis, “The Kemalist Republic,” chapter in The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1968, pp. 238-293. Feroz Ahmad, “The Kemalist Era, 1919-1938” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp. 75-94.
Week VI The Early Reforms Early Reforms - the Legal Reception Movement - the Great Speech and the Congress of 1927 – the Opposition - the Uprisings. Devrimler – Hukuk Düzenlemeleri - Nutuk (1927) ve 1927 Kongresi – Muhalefet - Ayaklanmalar Erik J. Zürcher, “The Kemalist One-Party State, 1925-45,” chapter in Turkey – A Modern History, by Erik J. Zürcher, I. B. Tauris, 1997, pp: 184-214 Dietrich Jung with Wolfango Piccoli, “National Resurrection – The early Turkish Republic,” chapter in Turkey at the Crossroads – Ottoman Legacies and A Greater Middle East, London & New York; Zed Books, 2001, pp. 59-82.
Week VII The Single-Party Era The 1931 and 1935 Congresses of the RPP; The Liberal Opposition; New Cultural Institutions and Reforms; Turkey on the Eve of World War II. 1931 – 1935 Kurultayları –Serbest Fırka Kemal Karpat, “The Establishment and Development of the Republic,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: 32-76. Donald Everett Webster, “The Ideology of Kamâlism,” chapter in The Turkey of Atatürk – Social Process in the Turkish Reformation,” Philadelphia, The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1939, pp. 163-172.
Week VIII The Cultural Revolution New Cultural Institutions and Reforms – Language Society – Historical Society – Folk Houses Kültür Devrimi – Türk Dil Kurumu – Türk Tarih Kurumu – Halkevleri Donald Everett Webster, “The Party in Politics,” chapter in The Turkey of Atatürk – Social Process in the Turkish Reformation,” Philadelphia, The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1939, pp. 173-180. Donald Everett Webster, “Propaganda – By Party and Other Agencies,” chapter in The Turkey of Atatürk – Social Process in the Turkish Reformation, Philadelphia, The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1939, pp. 181-196.
Week IX The National Economy and the Great Depression 1923-1929 İzmir Economic Congress; National Economic Policy; Great Depression İzmir İktisat Kongresi – Milli İktisat – Büyük Buhran Bent Hansen, “Postwar Recovery, 1923-29,” chapter in The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth – Egypt and Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp. 312-318. Z. H. Hershlag, “The Economic Reconstruction Period,” chapter in Turkey – The Challenge of Growth, Leiden; E.J.Brill, 1968, pp. 47-58.
Week X Turkish Economy and Society in the 30s’ Economic Recession and Distress; Economic Planning in the 30s’; Sumerbank and Etibank Ekonomik Durgunluk - Sanayi Planları – Sümerbank – Etibank Z. H. Hershlag, “Origins of Turkish Etatism,” chapter in Turkey – The Challenge of Growth, Leiden; E.J.Brill, 1968, pp. 61-76. Kemal Karpat, “The Economic and Social Transformation,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: 77-97.
Week XI The Second World War: Politics “National Chief” and the RPP; Turkish Neutrality; Milli Şef – Tarafsızlık Kemal Karpat, “The Social Classes and Wartime Developments,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: 98-133. Kemal Karpat, “Modern Turkey,” chapter in The Cambridge History of Islam, volume I, edited by P.M. Hold, Ann K. S. Lambton & Bernard Lewis, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp. 527-565.
Week XII The Second World War: War Economics and Society War Economy and Inflation; National Defence Law; the Capital Tax; the Lot of the Peasantry Savaş Ekonomisi ve Enflasyon – Millik Korunma Kanunu – Varlık Vergisi – Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi - Köylülük Bent Hansen, “The Etatist Experiment, 1929-50,” chapter in The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth – Egypt and Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp. 319-336. Z. H. Hershlag, “In Search of Economic Policies,” chapter in Turkey – The Challenge of Growth, Leiden; E.J.Brill, 1968, pp. 131-142.
Week XIII The Coming of Political Democracy The Land Reform – The Democrat Party – The 1946 Elections Çiftçiyi Topraklandırma Kanunu – Demokrat Parti – 1946 Seçimleri Bernard Lewis, “The Republic after Kemal,” chapter in The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1968, pp. 294-319. Feroz Ahmad, “Towards Multi-Party Politics and Democracy, 1938-1960,” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp. 75-94.
The World History The Long 19th Century 1789 – 1914 The Short 20th Century 1914 – 1991 Turkish 20th Century - from 1908 onwards The First Part (Seven Weeks)a) The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920] İkinci Meşrutiyet III – The Turkish Republic [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti]b) The Single-Party Era [1923-1946] The Second Part (Seven Weeks) The Multi-Party Era [1946 -
Periodization of Turkish History Young Turk Era 1908-1922 The Committee of Union and Progress The Long Great War 1912-1922 Balkan Wars + World War I + National Struggle Republicans 1923 -1945 – Republican People’s Party The Democrat Party 1946-1960 & 27 May 1960 The Second Constitutional Period 1961-1980 The Third Constitutional Period 1982 - 2006
Intellectual Stages of Modernity in Turkey Secularism - Çağdaşlaşma, Batı[lı]laşma, Muasırlaşma, Asrîleşme, The Tanzimat Reformers [Reşit Paşa, Ali Paşa, Fuat Paşa] The Young Ottomans [Şinasi, Namık Kemal, Ali Suavi, Mithat Paşa] The Young Turks [Ahmet Rıza, Prens Sabahattin, Abdullah Cevdet] The Unionists – The CUP [Committee of Union and Progress][Talat Paşa, Enver Paşa, Cemal Paşa, Ziya Gökalp] The Republicans [Kemalists][Mustafa Kemal Paşa, İsmet İnönü, Celal Bayar]
Political Regimes in Turkey – Systems of Government I - Autocracy /Absolutist Monarchy – [Mutlakiyetçi Monarşi] Pre-Tanzimat Era – Tanzimat Era – Post Tanzimat Era II - Constitutional Monarchy [Meşruti (Anayasal) Monarşi] a) The First Constitutional Era [1876-1878] b)The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920] İkinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi III – The Republican Regime [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti] a) The Single-Party Era [1923-1945]The Autoritarian Modernity b) The Multi-Party Era [1946 -2006]The Political Democracy
Political Regimes in Turkey – Systems of Government The Dynastic Period – Devlet-i Al-i Osman – OttomansSultan – Supreme Authority I - Autocracy /Absolutist Monarchy – [Mutlakiyetçi Monarşi] a)The Classical Era [1299 – 1789] from Osman to Selim III Sögüt – Bursa – Edirne – İstanbul b)The Modern Era [1789-1822] Selim III, Mahmut II, Abdülmecit, Abdülaziz, Abdülhamit II, Mehmet Reşat, Vahdettin
I ) The Classical Era – Social Strata The Palace entourage – Kapıkulua) Seyfiye [Army], b) Kalemiye [Primitive Bureaucracy], c) İlmiye [Religious authorities] The Reaya – Peasantry (Subjects of the Sultan)The Guilds [Lonca] and Merchants Lack of middling strata (bourgeoisie) – Middle Class II ) The Modern Era The Nation-State Process The Making of Ottoman Middling Strata – Middle ClassThe Emergence of NationalismsThe liberterian Ideas – Public opinion – Civil society The Emergence of Ottoman Intelligentsia
II - Constitutional Monarchy [Meşruti (Anayasal) Monarşi]a) The First Constitutional Era [1876-1878] Birinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi The First Constitution [Kanun-ı Esasi 1876] The First Parliament [Mebusan Meclisi – Ayan Meclisi 1877-78] b)The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920] İkinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi III – The Turkish Republic [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti]a) The Single-Party Era [1923-1945]b) The Multi-Party Era [1946 -2006]
Emergence of Ottoman middling strata in the 19th century The New Bureaucracy (Weberian type) The Tanziman men The Tanzimat Edict [Tanzimat Fermanı] (1839) Rational, Professional Tanzimat ReformsThe Centralization of the StateA Modern State Apparatus – Ministries etc.A Modern ArmyNew Financial and Economic StructureNew Legislations – Codes borrowed from abroad New generations trained in Secular High Schools Civil Service Academy(Mülkiye Mektebi )War Academy(Harbiye Mektebi) Medical College (Tıbbiye Mektebi)
The Young Turk Era in Turkish History 1908-1950 The Young Turk movement 1889 - Ottoman patriotism Who are the Young Turks ? An organized opposition of reformist Ottoman patriots Against absolutist regime of Abdulhamid II to reinstate constitution & parliament to propagate liberal and constitutional ideas European circle - Ottoman constitutionalists in exile Ahmed Rıza -Ottoman nationalist - Unionist Prens Sabahattin- liberal, minimal government, free enterprise Aptullah Cevdet - Westernist Congresses of Ottoman liberal and reformists in Paris – 1902 and 1907
Young Turk Era 1908-1918 harbinger / forerunnerof Republican Turkey Fortells the coming of a new regime / state Political changes The burgeoning of secular nation-state The rise of constitutionalism Basic rights – Citizens Socio-economic and cultural changes The new economic policy – Import Substitution – National Economy Secularization - Emancipation of women
The officers from the Third (Macedonian) and Second (Edirne) armies coming from the lower middle class 1906-1908 increasing discontent- rising prices- payment of salaries was in arrears Signs of discontent Strikes + small-scale uprisingsMacedonian problem Foreign control
The elections 1908 – Two-tier model [İki dereceli seçim] First electors – Second electors The CUP – the Committee of Union and Progress [İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti [Fırkası] Mehmed Cavid, Finance minister in June 1909 Mehmed Talat, Interior minister in August 1909 - The Party of Ottoman Liberals – [Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası] splinter group which broke away from CUP – February 1910 The Party of Freedom and Understanding November 1911 [Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası] The Ottoman Socialist Party [Osmanlı Sosyalist Fırkası]
The Counter-revolution - April 1909 [31 Mart Vak’ası] a) Demand for the Restoration of the Şeriatb) The Dismissal of the cabinetc) Seclusion of Muslim women – liberated by the new regime The Third Army and its Unionist supporters denounced the mutiny as unconstitutional Officers loyal to the constitution organized The Action Army [Hareket Ordusu] led by Mahmut Şevket Paşa set out from Salonica to restore order in Istanbul & punish the mutineers
Abdülhamit II toppled from power ratified by the fetva, a legal opinion, issued by the Şeyhulislam the accession to sultanate of Mehmet (V) Reşat (65) The liberal and conservative opponents of the CUP crushed Mahmut Şevket Paşa dominant force – virtual dictator of the new regime Unionists – his junior partners
Serious blows struck at the new regime Bulgaria declared its independence – October 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia Herzegovina Crete announced its decision to unite with Greece Uprisings – Albania, Yemen (İmam Yahya) The occupation of Tripolitania [Trablusgarp] by Italy - 1911 The Balkan War [Balkan Harbi / Savaşı ] - 1912-1913 1912 – Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria - Ottoman Empire
The Treaty of London 1912 The Porte surrendered Edirne to Bulgariaalong with all territory west of de Erez-Midya line The İstanbul Peace Agreement 1913between O.E. And Bulgaria Eastern Thrace – including Edirne & Dimotoka – to O.E.Exchange of populatitions
The Babıali Coup [Babiali Baskını] Mahmut Şevket Paşa as Grand Vizier and War Minister Unionist – junior partners Mahmut Şevket Paşa assasinated CUP monopoly of power from 1913 onwards 1913 Constitutional amendments Took away power from the sultan - vested it in the legislature (parliament) and the cabinet
A program of political, social & economic reforms A) Military Reform - Reorganization of the armyOlder officer corps purged B)Administrative reform -Provincial administration - decentralization (adem-i merkeziyet) C) Abolition of the capitulations 1914 - Unilateral Priviledges bestowed to foreigners The Great War - The First World War Harb-ı Umumî – Cihan Harbi – Birinci Dünya Savaşı
SECULARISM • Secularization – Laiklik • A) Judicial System • B) Educational System • Emancipation of Women
A) The Judicial Unification [Tevhid-i Adalet] i) Removal of the Şeyhülislam(highest religious authority) from the cabinet (1916) + his jurisdiction limited ii) Religious courts[Şer’i Mahkemeler]under the control of the Ministry of Justiceiii) The Foundation of theMinistry of Religious Foundations[Evkaf Nezareti] B) The Educational Unification [Tevhid-i Tedrisat] i) Religious colleges (medrese)under the Ministry of Education[Maarif Nezareti] ii) The modernization of theCurricula of the higher medreses
C) Emancipation of Women • Private sphere versus public sphere • i) Law on inheritance, based on German code (1913)ii)Family law (the territory of the Şeriat) Decree for Family Law - [Hukuk-ı Aile Nizamnamesi](1917) • Uniformity of all Ottoman subjects a) Right to take initiative for divorceb) Marriages before a magistratec) Brides to be aged over 16
Position of women Ideology : The policy of the CUP (state feminism) + The effects of the World War – Lack of manpower compensated for by women hastened the entry of women into the labour market Women becamevisible Women took part in social life Women appeared in public
Women went to theatres and musical performances Meetings - Speeches in nationalist clubs Girls - the schooling system at different levelsPrimary education compulsory for girls (1913) Higher education - the teacher training colleges Courses at the University (1914) – [İnas Darülfünunu] World War I The Ottoman Society for the Employment of Women[Osmanlı Kadınları Çalıştırma Cemiyet] to recruit women for service in industry
The Making of Civil Society The Concept of Citizenry Law for the Associations [Cemiyetler Kanunu] 1909 Philanthropic – Communitarian - Labour - Women associations Nationalist organizations - Turkish Hearths [Türk Ocakları] 1911 Committee of National Defence[Milli Müdafaa Cemiyeti ] (1913) - created a strong “home front” - the Balkan War Participation in politics – Public OpinionPolitical game became less elitistIt also became more brutal
The Age of Ideologies 1914 - 1945 The Young Turk Era Laboratory for Turkish Republic 1913 – a turnaround in the ideological currents
Stages of Turkish Nationalism a) First stage – The proto stage Cultural (literary and linguistic) movement in the 19th century – up to 1908 Symbol: Namık Kemal b) Second stage – The MetamorphosisEconomic and social movement 1908-1918 Ziya Gökalp c) Third stage - The final stage Political movement 1919-1923 Mustafa Kemal
Late comers – Italy – Germany - Turkey • Similarity with German Stages after Ziya Gökalp • First stage – • The proto stage Cultural (literary and linguistic) movement • up to the 1840s’ • Symbol: Fiche • b) Second stage – The MetamorphosisEconomic and social movement up to 1870s’ • List • c) Third stage - The final stage • Political movement – German Unity • Bismarck from 1870s’
STATISM - DEVLETÇİLİK National Economy after Friedrich List (German economist – opponent of classical economics) State economics (Devlet iktisadiyatı) a neo-mercantilist policy a prototype of statism Insistence on “economic independence” support for indigenous (local)capital foreign capital = exploitation National credit institutions (milli banka) Support for national bourgeoisie (millî burjuvazi)
From economic liberalism to national economy– Milli İktisat) a) Free Tradeimposed on Turkey by capitulationsClassical liberal point of view Removal of traditional barriers - guilds New and modern legislation on transactions & ownership b) Institutions : Chambers of commerce (Ticaret Odaları)& associations
c) Labor DisputesSocial unrest & strikes1908 Labour legislation – 1909 - Legislation on strikesBan on trades-unions and strikes favoured entrepreneurs d) Agriculture a) Property rights of the landowners b) Modernization & investment in agriculture (irrigation projects + infrastructural works + credit facilities)
Modern Finances Modern Budget in 1909 prepared by Cavit Bey Minister of Finances Unified and general budget Increase in incomes inspection & collection of taxes Budget control through Parliament = Democracy
National Economic Policy Balkan Wars - a new era - to reliance upon internal strata Loss of Salonica (1912) shift of political center (CUP) to Istanbul The Rise of Nationalism Statist and Neo-mercantilist Era State Economics – Devlet İktisadiyatı radical steps – liberalism challenged
Economic liberalism = low customs duties jeopardized interests of the local producers Complaint of theMuslim merchants unequal competition by foreigners and non-Muslims due to capitulations Old style, well-organized trade corporations (petty producers) versus non-Muslim mercantile interests Muslim-Turkish artisans and merchants - backbone of the new nationalist ideology The Rise of “National Bourgeoisie”
Protectionalism = Import Substitution Economic nationalism neo-mercantilism or protectionism versus liberalism and free trade – comparative advantages Liberal [classical] economics of Adam Smith– not universal suits industrialized economy & imperialistic policies Free trade – beneficial policy for England not for Turkey Nation as an economic unity – (agriculture & industry & trade) A complete whole – Küll-i tam
Import Substitution – Home Product (Yerli Malı) 1909 Bursa Exposition – Bursa Sergisi Austro-Hungarian Boycott 1908 – Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina Muslim boycott of 1913 – National economic policy Muslims to purchase from their co-religious shopkeepers
The Spirit of Industrialization Decree for the Encouragement of Industry (1913)[Teşvik-i Sanayi Kanunu] Joint-stock companies, indigenous – national [milli] cooperatives & banking institutions The Industrial census 1913-1915 Economic periodicals Sanayi Mecmuası – İktisadiyat Mecmuası TheNational Industrialists Society(Millî Fabrikacılar Cemiyeti)