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Reading Comprehension: The Key to Academic Achievement Presenter: Amy Benjamin. Today’s Presentation: 1. Reading comprehension in the secondary grades Reader Orientation: Text Types Getting reading and writing to work together 4. The Reading Process: Before: Connect!

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slide1

Reading Comprehension: The Key to Academic Achievement

Presenter: Amy Benjamin

  • Today’s Presentation:
  • 1. Reading comprehension in the secondary grades
  • Reader Orientation: Text Types
  • Getting reading and writing to work together
  • 4. The Reading Process:
    • Before: Connect!
    • During: Concentrate!
    • After: Complete
    • 5. Five Gears of Reading
    • 6. Formative Assessment

You may access today’s visuals at:

www.amybenjamin.com (Reading Comprehension: 2010)

slide2

Although U.S. students in grade 4 score

among the (highest, lowest) in the world,

those in grade 8 score much (higher, lower). By

grade 10, U.S. students score among the

(highest, lowest) in the world.

From Time to Act, a study commissioned by the Carnegie

Foundation, 2009:

slide3

Is it this?

Although U.S. students in grade 4 score

among the highest in the world,

those in grade 8 score much higher. By

grade 10, U.S. students score among the

highest in the world.

From Time to Act, a study commissioned by the Carnegie

Foundation, 2009:

slide4

No, it’s this:

Although U.S. students in grade 4 score

among the highest in the world,

those in grade 8 score much lower. By

grade 10, U.S. students score among the

lowest in the world.

What’s your theory?

From Time to Act, a study commissioned by the Carnegie

Foundation, 2009:

slide7

Elementary

School

Middle

School

High

School

volume: detail, description,

vocabulary: technical and general academic terms

sentence length

reference to diagrams

different kinds of punctuation

objective (does not address the reader as “you”)

less familiar imagery

focus strategies for all subjects
Focus Strategiesfor All Subjects:

1. Read aloud/think aloud (model your

thinking process as you read)

2. Getting reading and writing to support each

other (writing-to-learn activities)

3. Direct vocabulary instruction

reader orientation and text types
Reader Orientation andText Types:
  • Organizational structures such as :
  • 1. It describes the features or parts of one thing (Outline)
  • 2. It lays out a sequence (Story Arc)
  • 3. It explains a relationship between two things (T-Chart)
what is the significance of text types
What is the significance oftext types?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctVteQDRIM&feature=related

A reader who is aware of the text type is better able to:

  • Mentally organize the information (be oriented)
  • Predict and anticipate
  • Recall the key information
  • Establish an accurate relationship between
  • key ideas and supportive details
slide12

Text Types: Genres

Narrative (Telling a story)

Other literary text: poetry, drama, etc.

Informational text (textbooks)

Journalism (news articles, feature articles,

editorials, critiques)

Reports (findings from research)

Procedures (step-by-step)

slide13

Consider:

Column B

Column A:

End-of-chapter questions

Test-like questions

Reader-created outline

Reader-created summary

Reader-created paraphrase

Getting Reading and Writing to Work Together:

Writing-to-Learn Practices

slide14

mental

cut-and-

paste

Very weak intermolecular forces produced

by billions of hair-like structures, known as

setae….

Typical end-of-chapter questions: Text A

  • Explain how geckos stick to vertical surfaces.
slide15

2. “Van der Waals” refer to

a. weak intermolecular forces

b. setae

c. structures on a gecko’s feet

d. billions of hair-like structures

Vocabulary-type

Typical test-type questions: Text A

  • Which of the following best expresses the
  • main idea of this passage?
  • a. Why geckos fascinate us
  • b. How geckos stick to walls
  • c. Scientists study geckos’ feet
  • d. That cute little over-engineered reptile

Main idea-type

outline
Outline:

Middle Sch

High Sch

I.

A.

B.

C.

II.

A.

B.

C.

III.

A.

B.

C.

I.________

A.______

1._____

2.______

a._____

b._____

c._____

B.__________

II.____________

A.__________

B.__________

1._______

2._______

3._______

C.__________

Main idea

Main idea

Main idea

Elementary

Boxes & Bullets

slide17

Outlines: Text I

  • Changes caused by Industrial Revolution
  • A. How people worked
  • B. How people lived
  • Before the IR
    • A. Workers mostly in rural areas
    • B. Families worked together on farms
    • C. Most items made by hand
    • D. Children continued work of parents
  • During and After the IR
    • A. Families moved to cities
    • B. City living conditions
    • 1. Families less together
    • 2. Factory work
    • a. Dirty
    • b. Dangerous
    • C. Machinery
    • 1. Rapid production
    • 2. Decline of hand-made goods
the reading process before during after
The Reading Process:BeforeDuringAfter

3C’s:

B:Connect ! (4 connections)

D: Concentrate ! (5 behaviors)

A: Complete ! (3 choices)

Or, 3F’s:

B: Frontload

D: Focus

A: Finish

the reading process before connect
The Reading Process:Before: Connect !

3 C’s

Connection 1: Background knowledge (incl. key

vocab)

Connection 2: Text type (organizational structure)

Connection 3: Establish a purpose for reading

Connection 4: Overview

before connect
Before: Connect!

3 C’s

“What comes to mind when I say the word______?”

“What do/does ___________remind you of?”

“What do you see in your mind when I say ______?”

“What words are you seeing that you need to know more

about?

before connect1
Before: Connect!

3 C’s

Building Background Knowledge:

Pre-teach new vocab

Present visuals

Connect to personal experience

before connect prepare for the genre how is it organized
Before: Connect!Prepare for the genre How is it organized?

3 C’s

Picture the structure. Set up a “mental closet” to contain

the information. Think about what you expect in this

structure.

before connect have a focus for reading
Before: Connect!Have a focus for reading.

3 C’s

Decide what you are looking for. (page 86)

before connect get an overview
Before: Connect! Get an Overview

3 C’s

THIEVVES:

Title

Headings

Introductory paragraph

Every first sentence of every paragraph

Visuals and Vocabulary

End-of-chapter questions

Summary

the reading process during concentrate
The Reading Process:During: Concentrate!

3 C’s

Adjust the environment: eliminate all sensory

distractions

Visualize: Look for imagery in the text

Visualize the organizational structure

Monitor comprehension: Be prepared to reread and/or

seek outside help

Be an active reader: Anticipate, react, predict, question

connect

the reading process after complete
The Reading Process:After:Complete!

3 C’s

Write, talk, or draw

slide27

Cooperative Learning Protocol

for Improving Reading Comprehension

4-Roles in the Group

1. I’m the summarizer.

2. I’m the question asker.

3. I’m the word clarifier:

4. I’m the predictor:

slide28

Let’s summarize:

The ABOUT, AND technique:

It’s about geckos

1. It’s about…….. (one or two words)

2. and….

It’s about birds and how they stick

to vertical surfaces.

slide29

Summary Starters:

Text I:

It’s about the Industrial Revolution and

how it changed family life.

Text II:

It’s about Eos and Tithonius and how their

ill-fated love story played out.

Text III:

It’s about England and why it is to be treasured.

Text IV:

It’s about the different kinds of taxes and what they are used for.

slide30

Cooperative Learning Protocol

for Improving Reading Comprehension

QAR: Question-Answer Response

3 Kinds of questions:

1. “Right there”: The answer is stated directly

I. Yes/No

II. Who/what/when/where/why/how

2. “Put it together”: The answer is implied

in the text

3. “Beyond the Text”: The answer is not given; the text

evokes the question

where do i need help
Where do I need help?

Understanding the

vocabulary

Remembering what

I read

Answering the questions

Making connections:

Text-to-text

Text-to-self

Text-to-world

Visualizing

Concentrating

Taking notes

K-W-L Chart

Summarizing

slide32

Five Gears of Reading:

Skim it: Scan it: Sample it: Read it:

(optional) Study it:

Go back, as necessary,

getting a more useful and

permanent understanding.

This may involve working

with a partner, taking

notes, creating graphic

organizers, and other

meaning-making activities.

Now that you’ve let the

text wash over you, read

it thoroughly: every word,

every sentence, every

graphic.

Glance over it;

(30 secs

per page); get

the gist; be able to

state what it is about

in a complete sentence

Look it over with

an eagle’s eye, scanning

for specific information,

such as information that

has key words to answer

questions

Find a segment that is most interesting to you

and read it carefully.

www.amybenjamin.com

focus groups
Focus Groups:

Consider the “99 Ways” List.

What practices are already in place and working for you?

10 Minutes: Report out, please

slide34
Time

Interdisciplinary connections strengthen

learning

Simultaneous use of instructional time:

Teach skills that allow students to

process information independently

can my students read the textbook independently
Can my students read the textbook independently?

Preparation:

Read one page, timing yourself.

Compose 5 basic comprehension questions

Assess the vocabulary: How many words on the page will be problematical for the students? Are there

sufficient context clues for readers to determine

meaning of unfamiliar words?

can my students read the textbook independently1
Can my students read the textbook independently?

Formative Assessment: :

Ask students to read the targeted page in class

and time themselves. Note the students who took

significantly more time.

Ask students to answer the 5 basic comprehension questions. Note the students who have more than 2 wrong.

Ask students to identify the words that they don’t understand after reading the passage. Note the students who identify more than five words.

can my students read the textbook independently2
Can my students read the textbook independently?

How to help:

Intensify the “Before” reading strategies that connect

reader to text.

Provide pictures

Provide simplified versions

slide38

Enjoyment: Reading anything we want, just for fun!

stories, newspapers, comics,

magazines, graphic novels, teen romances,

sci-fi, adventure, humor….

  • Components of successful free reading programs in schools:
  • Lavish access to all kinds of appealing reading material
  • No accountability (ie, tests)
  • Teacher modeling
  • Regular time set aside for reading
  • Sustained over time (multiple years)
  • Comfortable environment, conducive to reading
  • Opportunities for discussion
  • Staff training on the benefits and management of SSR
  • Source: The SSR Handbook: How to Organize and Manage a Sustained Silent
  • Reading Program. Janice Pilgreen. Boynton/Cook. Portsmouth, NH. 2000

www.amybenjamin.com